AIOU Exam material Media Ethics and Laws (6603)

Mass Communication Semester-IIImportant Questions with Answers prepared by Faiza Gul, FRilmi Team (Errors and omissions acceptable) Disclaimer: All Questions and Answers are Based on self assessment and It is only Guess material

Question no. 1 Explain the developmental perspective of media laws and ethics.     

The developmental perspective of media laws and ethics refers to an approach that recognizes the evolving nature of media and the need for corresponding changes in the regulatory framework and ethical standards. It acknowledges that media laws and ethics should adapt to social, technological, and cultural transformations over time.

The developmental perspective emphasizes several key aspects:

  1. Societal Changes: Media laws and ethics should reflect the changing needs and values of society. As societies develop and become more diverse, media regulations should consider the interests and rights of various groups. For example, in a multicultural society like Pakistan, media laws and ethics should address issues of representation, diversity, and inclusivity, ensuring that all voices are heard and respected.
  2. Technological Advancements: With the rapid advancement of technology, media laws and ethics must adapt to new platforms and modes of communication. This includes regulations pertaining to digital media, social networking sites, streaming services, and other emerging technologies. The developmental perspective recognizes the importance of regulating these platforms to protect the public interest, address privacy concerns, combat misinformation, and ensure ethical behavior in the digital sphere.
  3. Media Pluralism and Independence: The developmental perspective emphasizes the importance of a diverse and independent media landscape. Media laws and ethics should promote competition, prevent media monopolies, and protect the freedom of expression and press freedom. This perspective acknowledges that media independence is crucial for a healthy democracy, allowing for the dissemination of diverse opinions and holding those in power accountable.
  4. Ethical Journalism: The developmental perspective recognizes the need for ethical guidelines for journalists and media professionals. These guidelines should evolve to address contemporary challenges such as fake news, sensationalism, and biased reporting. Ethical standards should encourage accuracy, fairness, transparency, and responsible journalism practices, while also considering the unique ethical dilemmas posed by new media technologies.
  5. Public Participation and Accountability: The developmental perspective emphasizes the importance of public participation in the development of media laws and ethical standards. It advocates for inclusive processes that involve stakeholders from civil society, media organizations, academia, and the general public. Additionally, media laws should include mechanisms to hold media organizations accountable for ethical violations, such as establishing regulatory bodies and promoting self-regulation.

In summary, the developmental perspective of media laws and ethics recognizes the need for a flexible and adaptive approach to media regulation. It considers societal changes, technological advancements, and ethical challenges to ensure that media laws and ethical standards remain relevant and effective in the rapidly evolving media landscape.

In the Pakistani context, the developmental perspective of media laws and ethics can be observed in various ways. Here are a few examples:

  1. Media Regulatory Authorities: The establishment of regulatory bodies, such as the Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) and the Press Council of Pakistan (PCP), reflects the developmental perspective. These bodies oversee the electronic and print media, respectively, and are responsible for enforcing media regulations, issuing licenses, and addressing complaints. Over time, these regulatory authorities have undergone reforms to enhance transparency, accountability, and public participation in the regulatory process.
  2. Broadcasting Code of Conduct: The PEMRA has developed a Broadcasting Code of Conduct that outlines ethical standards for electronic media in Pakistan. This code promotes responsible journalism, accuracy, fairness, and prohibits content that incites violence or spreads hatred. The code has been periodically updated to address emerging challenges in media ethics, including issues related to hate speech, fake news, and the representation of marginalized communities.
  3. Social Media Guidelines: In response to the growing influence of social media platforms, the Pakistani government has developed guidelines to regulate online content and address concerns related to misinformation, hate speech, and cyberbullying. While some critics argue that these guidelines may impede freedom of expression, they reflect the developmental perspective by recognizing the need to adapt media laws and ethics to the digital realm and protect citizens from potential harm.
  4. Media Ownership Regulations: Media ownership regulations play a crucial role in ensuring media pluralism and preventing monopolies. Pakistan has introduced restrictions on cross-media ownership to promote diversity and prevent undue concentration of media power. These regulations aim to encourage a competitive media landscape, which is essential for a healthy democracy and the representation of diverse voices.
  5. Access to Information Laws: Pakistan has enacted the Right of Access to Information Act, which promotes transparency and accountability in the public sector. This law allows citizens to request and access information held by public bodies, including government departments and public institutions. It enables journalists and media professionals to gather information and hold public officials accountable, contributing to the developmental perspective of media laws by facilitating informed and responsible reporting.

These examples demonstrate how Pakistan has embraced the developmental perspective by evolving its media laws and ethics to keep pace with societal changes, technological advancements, and emerging challenges. By addressing issues such as media pluralism, digital media regulations, ethical journalism, and public participation, Pakistan aims to foster a media environment that promotes freedom of expression, responsible reporting, and the public interest.

Question no. 2 Elaborate the global journalism ethics.

Global journalism ethics refers to ethical principles and standards that guide journalistic practices on a global scale. It recognizes the interconnectedness of media and communication across borders and seeks to establish common ground for ethical behavior in journalism worldwide. While specific ethical guidelines may vary across countries and cultures, there are overarching principles that are commonly upheld. Here are some examples of global journalism ethics:

  1. Accuracy and Truthfulness: Journalists are expected to strive for accuracy in reporting and presenting information. They should verify facts, cross-check sources, and provide context to ensure that their stories are truthful and reliable. This principle emphasizes the importance of avoiding misinformation and misleading content. For example, during the COVID-19 pandemic, accurate reporting on infection rates, prevention measures, and vaccine efficacy has been crucial in providing the public with reliable information.
  2. Independence and Impartiality: Journalists should maintain independence from political, commercial, and other external influences. They are expected to report objectively, presenting multiple perspectives and avoiding bias or favoritism. This principle ensures that journalism remains a watchdog for the public interest and that journalists are not compromised by undue influence. For instance, in coverage of political elections, journalists strive to provide fair and impartial reporting, allowing voters to make informed decisions.
  3. Privacy and Sensitivity: Journalists should respect individuals’ privacy rights and exercise sensitivity when reporting on personal matters. They should avoid unnecessary intrusion into private lives and consider the potential harm their reporting may cause. For example, reporting on sensitive topics such as sexual assault or mental health requires careful consideration of privacy concerns and the potential impact on the individuals involved.
  4. Diversity and Inclusion: Journalists should strive to represent diverse voices and perspectives in their reporting. They should avoid stereotypes and discriminatory language or portrayals. This principle promotes inclusivity, ensuring that marginalized communities are not misrepresented or excluded from media coverage. For instance, reporting on social issues such as gender equality or minority rights should aim to amplify the voices of those affected and provide balanced coverage.
  5. Accountability and Corrections: Journalists are responsible for their work and should be accountable for the accuracy of their reporting. When errors or inaccuracies occur, they should promptly correct them and provide a transparent explanation. This principle fosters trust between journalists and their audiences. An example of this principle in action is when news organizations issue public apologies and corrections for factual errors or misrepresentation of facts.
  6. Ethical Use of Sources: Journalists should respect the confidentiality of their sources when necessary and avoid plagiarism or misrepresentation of others’ work. They should attribute information to the appropriate sources and provide proper context. This principle ensures that journalistic integrity is maintained, and sources are protected. For instance, investigative journalism often relies on anonymous sources who may face risks if their identities are revealed.

These examples illustrate the global journalism ethics that underpin responsible and ethical reporting practices worldwide. While specific ethical challenges and considerations may vary in different regions, the principles of accuracy, independence, privacy, diversity, accountability, and ethical sourcing serve as a foundation for journalists to uphold ethical standards in their work on a global scale.

Question no. 3  What is code of ethics? Distinguish between ethics and morality.

A code of ethics is a set of principles or guidelines that outline expected behaviors and standards of conduct within a particular profession or organization. It serves as a framework to guide ethical decision-making and professional behavior. A code of ethics typically encompasses values, principles, and rules that professionals are expected to adhere to in their practice.

Distinguishing between ethics and morality can be nuanced, but here are some general differences:

  1. Definition: Ethics refers to a set of principles or guidelines that define what is considered right or wrong within a specific context, such as a profession or society. It focuses on the practical application of moral principles. Morality, on the other hand, is a broader concept that refers to the principles of right and wrong that guide individual behavior and personal beliefs.
  2. Scope: Ethics often applies to a specific domain or field, such as medical ethics, business ethics, or journalistic ethics. It provides guidelines and standards for professionals within those domains. Morality, on the other hand, encompasses a wider range of personal beliefs and values that individuals hold, which may extend beyond a specific professional or social context.
  3. Context: Ethics is influenced by the norms, values, and expectations of a particular profession, organization, or society. It takes into account the specific context in which ethical decisions are made. Morality, on the other hand, can be influenced by personal beliefs, cultural upbringing, religious teachings, and individual conscience.
  4. Flexibility: Ethics can be subject to interpretation and may vary across different contexts or professional organizations. It allows for some flexibility to accommodate specific circumstances while adhering to core principles. Morality, on the other hand, tends to be more personal and subjective, reflecting an individual’s deeply held beliefs and values.
  5. External Standards: Ethics often relies on external standards and guidelines established by professional bodies, organizations, or regulatory authorities. These external standards help ensure consistency and accountability within a specific domain. Morality, on the other hand, may be influenced by internal factors, such as personal conscience, empathy, and individual reflection.

In summary, ethics refers to a set of principles and guidelines that guide professional behavior within a specific context, while morality encompasses personal beliefs and principles of right and wrong that guide individual behavior. Ethics often relies on external standards and applies within a defined domain, while morality is a broader concept that encompasses personal beliefs and values that individuals hold.

Here are examples that illustrate the distinction between ethics and morality:

  1. Ethics: In the context of journalism, an ethical principle might be to report accurate and unbiased information. A journalist adhering to this principle would ensure that their stories are factually correct, sources are reliable, and diverse perspectives are represented. They would follow professional codes of ethics and guidelines set by their news organization.
  2. Morality: An individual’s personal moral belief might be that it is always wrong to lie. Regardless of the specific context, they believe that lying is morally unacceptable. This moral belief may guide their personal behavior and decisions in various situations, such as refusing to lie even in circumstances where it may seem beneficial or when faced with potential negative consequences.

These examples illustrate how ethics encompasses professional or context-specific principles and guidelines, while morality reflects an individual’s personal beliefs and values that guide their behavior in a broader sense. Ethics provides guidelines for professionals within a particular domain, whereas morality influences personal choices and behavior based on individual beliefs about right and wrong.

Question no. 4 Describe different branches of media ethics.                   

Media ethics encompasses various branches that address specific ethical considerations and challenges within the field of media. Here are some different branches of media ethics:

  1. Journalistic Ethics: Journalistic ethics focuses on the ethical responsibilities and considerations of journalists and news organizations. It covers principles such as accuracy, fairness, objectivity, and transparency in reporting. Journalistic ethics also includes guidelines for respecting privacy, protecting sources, avoiding conflicts of interest, and ensuring responsible use of social media platforms.
  2. Digital Media Ethics: With the rise of digital media platforms and the internet, digital media ethics has emerged as a distinct branch. It addresses ethical issues related to online journalism, social media use, citizen journalism, and the dissemination of information in the digital age. This branch includes considerations such as online privacy, combating fake news, verifying information, maintaining digital security, and addressing the impact of algorithms and filter bubbles on content distribution.
  3. Advertising Ethics: Advertising ethics focuses on the ethical considerations within the realm of advertising and marketing. It involves principles such as truthfulness, transparency, avoiding deceptive practices, and ensuring that advertisements do not exploit vulnerable populations. Ethical advertising also includes issues related to product placement, targeting children, and the responsible use of consumer data.
  4. Public Relations Ethics: Public relations ethics addresses the ethical responsibilities of public relations practitioners and organizations. It covers principles such as honesty, transparency, maintaining professional integrity, and providing accurate and balanced information to the public. Ethical considerations in public relations also include issues related to conflicts of interest, disclosure of sponsored content, and representing clients or organizations in an ethical manner.
  5. Entertainment Media Ethics: Entertainment media ethics focuses on the ethical considerations within the realm of entertainment content, including film, television, music, and other forms of entertainment. It involves principles such as respecting cultural diversity, avoiding harmful stereotypes, and ensuring that entertainment media does not promote violence, discrimination, or unethical behavior. This branch also includes issues related to the protection of intellectual property rights and ethical practices in the production and distribution of entertainment media.
  6. Media Ownership and Control Ethics: This branch of media ethics addresses ethical considerations related to media ownership, concentration of media power, and the influence of media conglomerates. It explores issues such as media monopolies, editorial independence, conflicts of interest, and the need for diverse voices and perspectives in media representation. This branch also examines the ethical implications of media ownership and control on democratic processes and public discourse.

These branches of media ethics provide frameworks for professionals and organizations to navigate the ethical challenges specific to their respective areas within the broader field of media. Adhering to these ethical principles promotes responsible and accountable media practices that serve the public interest.

Question no. 5 Discuss the codes of ethics being practiced in Japan, Singapore and Pakistan./ Mention different international codes of ethics for the journalists.

Codes of ethics being practiced in Japan

In Japan, media ethics are guided by codes of ethics developed and followed by various media organizations and professional bodies. These codes provide guidelines and standards to ensure responsible and ethical media practices. Here are a few examples of codes of ethics being practiced in Japan:

  1. Japan Newspaper Publishers & Editors Association (NSK) Code of Ethics: The NSK Code of Ethics outlines the principles that newspapers and news agencies in Japan should adhere to. It emphasizes accuracy, fairness, and independence in reporting, along with respecting privacy and human rights. The code also addresses issues such as conflicts of interest, protection of sources, and avoiding plagiarism.
  2. Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK) Broadcast Program Standards: NHK, the public broadcaster in Japan, follows a set of broadcast program standards that outline ethical guidelines for its programs. These standards emphasize accuracy, impartiality, diversity, and respect for human rights. They also cover topics such as avoiding discrimination, protecting minors, and ensuring responsible use of visuals and sound.
  3. Japan Commercial Broadcasters Association (JBA) Guidelines for Broadcasters: The JBA Guidelines for Broadcasters provide ethical guidelines for commercial broadcasters in Japan. The guidelines focus on principles such as fairness, accuracy, and impartiality in news reporting. They also address issues like protecting personal information, avoiding conflicts of interest, and maintaining integrity in advertising practices.
  4. Japan Magazine Publishers Association (JMPA) Ethical Guidelines: The JMPA Ethical Guidelines set standards for magazine publishers in Japan. These guidelines cover areas such as accuracy, fairness, and responsible reporting. They also address topics like the distinction between advertisements and editorial content, protecting the privacy of individuals, and avoiding excessive sensationalism.
  5. Japan Society for Studies in Journalism and Mass Communication (JSSJMC) Guidelines: The JSSJMC has developed guidelines that encompass a broader range of media practices, including both print and broadcast media. These guidelines emphasize ethical considerations such as accuracy, fairness, independence, and transparency. They also address issues like responsible use of anonymous sources, avoiding conflicts of interest, and promoting media literacy.

These codes of ethics reflect the commitment of media organizations in Japan to maintain high ethical standards and serve the public interest. They provide guidance for journalists, broadcasters, and media professionals in their daily work and help ensure responsible and accountable media practices in the country.

Discuss the codes of ethics being practiced in Singapore

In Singapore, media ethics are guided by codes of ethics established by various media organizations and professional bodies. These codes provide guidelines and standards to ensure responsible and ethical media practices. Here are some examples of codes of ethics being practiced in Singapore:

  1. Singapore Press Holdings (SPH) Code of Conduct: SPH, one of the leading media organizations in Singapore, has a Code of Conduct that outlines the ethical standards for its journalists and employees. The code emphasizes principles such as accuracy, fairness, and integrity in reporting. It also addresses issues like respect for privacy, avoiding conflicts of interest, and ensuring responsible use of social media.
  2. Media Literacy Council (MLC) Guidelines: The MLC, a public advisory body in Singapore, has developed guidelines to promote responsible media use and ethical behavior among individuals and organizations. These guidelines cover areas such as online behavior, digital content creation, and responsible sharing of information. They aim to foster media literacy, digital citizenship, and ethical engagement with media platforms.
  3. Code of Ethics for the Internet & Mobile Advertising (IAB Singapore): The IAB Singapore has established a Code of Ethics specifically for internet and mobile advertising practices in the country. The code promotes ethical advertising practices, including principles of transparency, honesty, and accuracy in online advertising. It also addresses issues like protecting user privacy, avoiding deceptive practices, and ensuring compliance with relevant laws and regulations.
  4. Association of Independent Producers (AIP) Singapore Code of Practice: The AIP Singapore, a professional association for independent producers, has a Code of Practice that sets ethical guidelines for its members. The code emphasizes integrity, professionalism, and adherence to high ethical standards in content creation and production. It covers aspects such as accuracy, fairness, respect for intellectual property rights, and maintaining professional relationships.
  5. National Trades Union Congress (NTUC) Code of Professional Conduct for Media Professionals: The NTUC, a national labor federation in Singapore, has developed a Code of Professional Conduct specifically for media professionals. The code focuses on principles such as accuracy, fairness, impartiality, and responsible reporting. It also addresses issues such as respect for privacy, maintaining professional integrity, and avoiding conflicts of interest.

These codes of ethics reflect the commitment of media organizations and professional bodies in Singapore to uphold high ethical standards in media practices. They provide guidance for journalists, advertisers, content creators, and other media professionals to ensure responsible, accurate, and ethical engagement with media platforms and audiences in Singapore.

In Pakistan, media ethics are guided by codes of ethics established by various media organizations and professional bodies. These codes provide guidelines and standards to ensure responsible and ethical media practices. Here are some examples of codes of ethics being practiced in Pakistan:

  1. Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) Code of Conduct: PEMRA, the regulatory authority for electronic media in Pakistan, has a Code of Conduct that outlines the ethical standards for electronic media outlets, including TV channels and radio stations. The code emphasizes principles such as accuracy, fairness, objectivity, and respect for privacy. It also covers topics like responsible reporting, avoiding hate speech, and promoting diversity and cultural sensitivity.
  2. All Pakistan Newspapers Society (APNS) Code of Ethics: The APNS, a representative body of major newspaper publishers in Pakistan, has a Code of Ethics for its member publications. The code emphasizes principles such as accuracy, fairness, honesty, and independence in reporting. It also addresses issues such as avoiding conflicts of interest, protecting the rights of journalists, and respecting the dignity and privacy of individuals.
  3. Council of Pakistan Newspaper Editors (CPNE) Code of Ethics: The CPNE, an association of newspaper editors in Pakistan, has a Code of Ethics that sets ethical guidelines for its members. The code focuses on principles such as accuracy, fairness, objectivity, and responsible reporting. It also covers areas like avoiding plagiarism, respecting intellectual property rights, and providing a platform for diverse voices and opinions.
  4. Pakistan Federal Union of Journalists (PFUJ) Code of Conduct: The PFUJ, a union representing journalists in Pakistan, has a Code of Conduct that sets ethical standards for its members. The code emphasizes principles such as accuracy, fairness, impartiality, and responsible reporting. It also addresses issues such as protecting journalists’ rights, ensuring safety and security, and promoting media freedom and independence.
  5. Pakistan Advertising Association (PAA) Code of Ethics: The PAA has a Code of Ethics that applies to advertising practices in Pakistan. The code promotes ethical advertising practices, including principles of honesty, fairness, accuracy, and responsible marketing. It also addresses issues such as avoiding false or misleading advertisements, respecting consumer privacy, and adhering to relevant laws and regulations.

These codes of ethics reflect the commitment of media organizations, regulatory authorities, and professional bodies in Pakistan to uphold high ethical standards in media practices. They provide guidance for journalists, editors, publishers, advertisers, and other media professionals to ensure responsible, accurate, and ethical engagement with media platforms and audiences in Pakistan.

Question no. 6 What is privacy? Technology is invading privacy, discuss.    

Privacy refers to the right of individuals to control and protect their personal information and to be free from intrusion or unwanted surveillance. It encompasses the ability to keep certain aspects of one’s life private, including personal data, communications, activities, and personal spaces.

Technology has undoubtedly played a significant role in shaping the way privacy is perceived and experienced in the modern era. While technology has brought numerous benefits and advancements, it has also raised concerns about the invasion of privacy. Here are some aspects to consider:

  1. Data Collection and Surveillance: Technological advancements have enabled the collection and analysis of vast amounts of personal data. Online platforms, social media, search engines, and various digital services often collect and analyze user data for targeted advertising, personalized experiences, or profiling. Government surveillance programs and the deployment of surveillance technologies, such as CCTV cameras and facial recognition systems, also raise concerns about privacy intrusion.
  2. Online Presence and Social Media: People willingly share personal information, thoughts, and experiences on social media platforms, often without fully understanding the potential consequences. This can result in the exposure of personal details and the blurring of boundaries between public and private life. The misuse or mishandling of personal information by social media platforms or third parties can compromise privacy.
  3. Internet of Things (IoT) and Smart Devices: The proliferation of IoT devices and smart technologies has increased the amount of data collected from everyday objects, such as home appliances, wearables, and smart speakers. While these devices offer convenience and connectivity, they also raise concerns about constant monitoring and potential vulnerabilities that could be exploited to compromise privacy.
  4. Data Breaches and Cybersecurity: The digitization of personal information and reliance on online services has also increased the risk of data breaches and cyberattacks. Unauthorized access to personal data can have serious consequences, including identity theft, financial fraud, and reputational damage, resulting in a loss of privacy and security.
  5. Biometric Technologies: Biometric technologies, such as fingerprint or facial recognition systems, have gained prominence in various applications, including authentication and surveillance. While these technologies offer convenience and security, concerns arise regarding the collection, storage, and potential misuse of biometric data, as well as the potential for surveillance and tracking.

Addressing the invasion of privacy requires a comprehensive approach that involves legal frameworks, technological safeguards, and individual awareness. Governments and regulatory bodies play a crucial role in enacting and enforcing privacy laws and regulations to protect individuals’ rights. Technological solutions, such as encryption, anonymization, and privacy-enhancing tools, can help mitigate privacy risks. Additionally, individuals should be cautious about the information they share online, understand privacy settings, and advocate for their rights to protect their personal information.

It is important to strike a balance between the benefits of technology and the protection of privacy rights, as privacy is a fundamental aspect of individual autonomy, dignity, and freedom in the digital age.

Question no. 7 Explain the situation of privacy practices in Pakistan with suitable examples. / Explain the relationship between media ethics and privacy. /        Concept of privacy and moral justification for privacy

In Pakistan, the situation regarding privacy practices is complex, with both advancements and challenges in protecting personal information. Here are some key aspects to consider:

  1. Data Protection Laws: Pakistan does not currently have comprehensive data protection legislation in place. However, the Personal Data Protection Bill, 2020, is under consideration and aims to establish a legal framework for the protection of personal data. The bill outlines principles such as consent, purpose limitation, and data security.
  2. Government Surveillance: Concerns have been raised about government surveillance and the potential impact on privacy. The Pakistan Telecommunication (Re-Organization) Act, 1996, grants the government certain surveillance powers for national security purposes. The use of surveillance technologies, such as CCTV cameras and facial recognition systems, has also increased in public spaces.
  3. Social Media Regulation: The government has taken steps to regulate social media platforms in Pakistan. The Citizens Protection (Against Online Harm) Rules, 2020, introduced requirements for social media companies to register with the Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) and comply with content removal requests. However, concerns have been raised about the impact on freedom of expression and privacy rights.
  4. Digital Identity Programs: The Pakistani government has initiated digital identity programs, such as the National Database and Registration Authority (NADRA) and the biometric-based identity card system. These programs aim to streamline services and reduce identity fraud. However, concerns have been raised regarding the security and potential misuse of biometric data.
  5. Data Breaches and Cybersecurity: Pakistan has witnessed several high-profile data breaches and cybersecurity incidents, leading to the exposure of personal information. These incidents highlight the need for robust cybersecurity measures and data protection practices by organizations to safeguard individuals’ privacy.
  6. Mobile Apps and Personal Data: The use of mobile apps has become widespread in Pakistan, and concerns have been raised about their data collection and privacy practices. Instances of unauthorized data sharing or misuse by mobile apps have highlighted the importance of user awareness and transparency in data collection practices.

While privacy practices in Pakistan face challenges, efforts are being made to address the issue. The introduction of the Personal Data Protection Bill, 2020, demonstrates recognition of the need for a legal framework to protect personal data. However, there is still a need for comprehensive legislation and increased awareness among individuals and organizations about privacy rights and best practices for data protection.

Question no. 8  What you know about the coverage of politics and ethical issues?/ while the covering  politics, what ethical issues must be kept in consideration?

The coverage of politics and ethical issues is a crucial aspect of journalism and media ethics. It involves the responsible and accurate reporting of political events, policies, and decisions, as well as ethical considerations related to fairness, impartiality, transparency, and the impact on society. Here’s an overview of key points related to the coverage of politics and ethical issues:

  1. Objectivity and Impartiality: Journalists strive to provide objective and impartial coverage of political events and issues. They should present multiple perspectives, avoid personal biases, and provide a fair representation of different viewpoints. Ethical journalists aim to separate news reporting from opinion and clearly label opinion pieces to avoid confusion.
  2. Accuracy and Verification: Reporting on politics requires a commitment to accuracy and fact-checking. Journalists should verify information from reliable sources before reporting it and correct any errors promptly. Misinformation or false reporting can have significant consequences on public perception and democratic processes.
  3. Transparency and Accountability: Ethical journalism demands transparency in sourcing and attribution. Journalists should clearly identify the sources of information and disclose any potential conflicts of interest. They should also be accountable for their work, accepting responsibility for the accuracy and fairness of their reporting.
  4. Balance and Diversity: Journalists should strive for balanced coverage by including diverse perspectives and giving equal opportunities for different voices to be heard. They should avoid favoritism or bias towards specific political parties or individuals and provide a platform for a wide range of opinions and ideas.
  5. Privacy and Sensitivity: Reporting on political figures and public officials requires careful consideration of privacy rights and ethical boundaries. Journalists should respect the privacy of individuals unless there is a clear public interest that outweighs the individual’s right to privacy. Sensitivity should also be exercised when reporting on sensitive or personal matters.
  6. Ethical Dilemmas: Journalists covering politics may encounter ethical dilemmas, such as dealing with confidential sources, handling leaked documents, or reporting on sensitive information that could potentially harm national security. Ethical decision-making involves balancing the public’s right to know with potential harm and adhering to ethical guidelines and legal frameworks.
  7. Avoiding Conflict of Interest: Journalists should be aware of potential conflicts of interest that could compromise their objectivity and independence. They should disclose any personal, financial, or professional relationships that could influence their reporting and avoid situations where their independence or credibility may be compromised.

The coverage of politics and ethical issues requires a commitment to journalistic integrity, adherence to professional standards, and a focus on serving the public interest. Ethical journalism plays a crucial role in fostering an informed citizenry and holding political leaders accountable, thereby contributing to a healthy democracy.        

Question no. 9 Discuss the ethics and morality in Web journalism with detail/ What is Web journalism? Elaborate different ethical guidelines for it.

Ethics and morality play a significant role in web journalism, shaping the practices and standards followed by journalists and media organizations in the digital landscape. Here’s a detailed discussion on the ethics and morality in web journalism:

  1. Accuracy and Truthfulness: Web journalists have a responsibility to provide accurate and truthful information to their audience. This includes verifying facts, cross-checking sources, and correcting errors promptly. Journalists should prioritize accuracy over speed and avoid spreading misinformation or engaging in clickbait tactics.
  2. Independence and Impartiality: Web journalists should maintain their independence and avoid conflicts of interest that could compromise their reporting. They should be impartial in their coverage, presenting multiple perspectives fairly and avoiding personal biases. Sponsored content or undisclosed affiliations that could influence reporting should be clearly identified.
  3. Transparency and Accountability: Web journalists should be transparent about their methods, sources, and potential biases. They should disclose any conflicts of interest and clearly label opinion pieces or sponsored content. Journalists should also be accountable for their work, acknowledging and rectifying errors, and providing avenues for audience feedback and engagement.
  4. Privacy and Consent: Respecting privacy rights is crucial in web journalism. Journalists should obtain informed consent before publishing personal information or images of individuals, particularly in sensitive situations. They should be cautious when reporting on private individuals, taking care not to unnecessarily intrude upon their personal lives.
  5. Online Community Standards: Web journalists should be mindful of community standards and ethical guidelines set by the platforms they operate on. They should adhere to rules and policies regarding hate speech, harassment, and defamation. Engaging in respectful dialogue and fostering a constructive online environment is important.
  6. Digital Source Verification: Web journalists should critically evaluate and verify digital sources, particularly in an era of misinformation and fake news. Relying on credible sources, fact-checking information, and cross-referencing multiple sources are crucial practices to ensure the reliability of information published online.
  7. Sensitivity and Responsible Reporting: Web journalists should exercise sensitivity when covering topics that could cause harm, including reporting on trauma, violence, or personal tragedies. They should consider the potential impact on victims, survivors, and their families, and exercise caution in sharing graphic or explicit content.
  8. Copyright and Intellectual Property: Journalists should respect copyright laws and intellectual property rights when using multimedia content from other sources. They should attribute sources appropriately and seek permission when necessary, while also respecting fair use provisions.
  9. Online Comment Sections and User Engagement: Web journalists should foster responsible and respectful user engagement in online comment sections or social media platforms. Moderation should be in place to prevent the spread of hate speech, harassment, or offensive content.
  10. Ethical Business Practices: Web journalism also involves ethical considerations in terms of revenue generation and advertising practices. Journalists and media organizations should ensure transparency in sponsored content, native advertising, and affiliate marketing, clearly distinguishing them from editorial content.

Adhering to ethics and morality in web journalism is crucial to maintain credibility, trust, and the integrity of information shared online. Journalists and media organizations must continuously adapt to the evolving digital landscape, while upholding professional standards and ethical principles to serve the public interest.

Question no. 10 Discuss the unethical practices in photo journalism./ Discuss unethical practices in photojournalism. / Unethical tendencies on photo journalism Photojournalism.

While photojournalism is a powerful medium for capturing and conveying news and events, there have been instances of unethical practices within the field. Here are some examples of unethical practices in photojournalism:

  1. Manipulation and Photo Editing: One of the most common unethical practices in photojournalism is the manipulation or alteration of images. This can include digitally altering the content of a photo, such as removing or adding elements, to create a false narrative or enhance visual impact. Manipulated photos deceive the audience and undermine the credibility of the photographer and the news organization.
  2. Staging and Posed Shots: Another unethical practice is staging or directing subjects to create a particular narrative or visual impact. While some degree of direction may be necessary in certain situations, photojournalists should strive to capture authentic and candid moments rather than contrived or posed scenes. Staging events or asking subjects to reenact moments can distort the truth and mislead the audience.
  3. Sensationalism and Graphic Images: The pursuit of sensationalism and the use of excessively graphic or disturbing images can be considered unethical. While photojournalism aims to inform and evoke emotions, the use of highly explicit or gratuitously violent images solely for shock value can be seen as exploitative and insensitive, potentially causing unnecessary harm or distress to the subjects and viewers.
  4. Invasion of Privacy: Photojournalists must be mindful of an individual’s right to privacy, especially in sensitive or personal situations. Invading private spaces or capturing intimate moments without consent can be considered unethical. Respect for privacy is essential, and obtaining permission or considering the potential harm caused by publishing certain images is a key ethical consideration.
  5. Misrepresentation of Context: Presenting images out of context or providing misleading captions can distort the true meaning or implications of a photograph. Photojournalists should provide accurate and contextual information to ensure that images are not misinterpreted or used to advance a particular agenda. Misrepresenting the context of a photo can compromise the integrity and credibility of the journalist.
  6. Exploitation of Subjects: Unethical practices in photojournalism can involve exploiting vulnerable subjects, such as victims of tragedy or individuals in distress. Photojournalists should approach their subjects with empathy, dignity, and respect. Consent should be sought when feasible, and care should be taken to avoid re-traumatizing or further victimizing individuals for the sake of a photograph.
  7. Plagiarism and Unauthorized Use: Photojournalists must respect copyright laws and the intellectual property of others. Using images without permission or failing to credit the original source is considered unethical. Plagiarism in photojournalism undermines the work of other photographers and compromises the integrity of the profession.

It is essential for photojournalists to adhere to a strict code of ethics, including transparency, accuracy, and respect for subjects. Ethical photojournalism upholds the responsibility to truthfully document events and stories while maintaining the dignity and privacy of individuals involved.

Question no.11 Elaborate ethical issues, while reporting children issues./ Pakistani media coverage of children and ethical issue. Reporting on children’s issues requires careful consideration of ethical guidelines to protect the welfare and best interests of children. Here are some key ethical issues to be mindful of when reporting on


  1. Privacy and Consent: Respecting the privacy of children is paramount. Journalists should obtain informed consent from parents or legal guardians before interviewing or photographing children. They should avoid revealing sensitive information that could harm a child’s well-being or compromise their safety.
  2. Sensitivity to Vulnerability: Children are particularly vulnerable subjects, and journalists should approach their reporting with sensitivity and empathy. They should consider the potential emotional and psychological impact on children when sharing their stories, ensuring they are not exploited or re-traumatized.
  3. Minimizing Harm: Journalists should be cautious about the potential harm that could result from reporting on certain children’s issues. They should carefully consider the impact of publishing explicit details or graphic imagery that may be distressing to children or have negative consequences for their well-being.
  4. Avoiding Stereotypes and Stigmatization: Journalists should avoid perpetuating stereotypes or stigmatizing children based on their background, ethnicity, gender, or any other characteristic. Responsible reporting should focus on providing balanced and accurate portrayals of children’s experiences, highlighting their strengths and resilience.
  5. Informed Consent and Assent: When children are capable of understanding, journalists should seek their assent in addition to parental consent. Children’s perspectives should be respected, and they should be given the opportunity to express their views and participate in the reporting process to the extent that is appropriate for their age and maturity level.
  6. Protecting Identities: Journalists should take utmost care in protecting the identities of child subjects. This includes using pseudonyms or withholding specific identifying information to prevent potential harm, discrimination, or social stigma.
  7. Avoiding Exploitation: Journalists must avoid exploiting children for sensationalism or pursuing stories solely for their shock value. Reporting should be driven by a genuine concern for the child’s well-being and the public interest, with a focus on raising awareness, advocating for children’s rights, and promoting positive change.
  8. Consulting Child Protection Experts: In complex cases involving children, consulting child protection experts or organizations can provide valuable guidance and insights. These experts can help journalists navigate ethical challenges, assess potential risks, and ensure that reporting aligns with the best interests of the child.
  9. Long-Term Impact: Journalists should consider the potential long-term consequences of their reporting on children. They should be mindful of how stories may affect the child’s future opportunities, relationships, or well-being and exercise caution in reporting on sensitive issues that could have lasting effects.

Ethical reporting on children’s issues requires a delicate balance between the public’s right to know, the best interests of the child, and the principles of responsible journalism. By adhering to ethical guidelines and considering the welfare and rights of children, journalists can contribute to raising awareness, advocating for change, and giving voice to those who are often marginalized in society.

Question no. 12 Do you agree that women as audience can influence the media content? / Explain the portrayal of women in print and electronic media with reference to the ethical code. / Do you agree that women as audience can influence the media content?  / How electronic media portray women in Pakistan?

Women as an audience can indeed influence media content. The influence of women as audience members has grown significantly over the years, leading to changes in the types of content produced and the way it is presented. Here’s why women as an audience have the power to influence media content:

  1. Consumer Influence: Women make up a significant portion of the consumer market and have considerable purchasing power. Media organizations recognize this and tailor their content to appeal to female audiences. Advertisers, for example, create campaigns that resonate with women’s interests and preferences, shaping the content and messages portrayed in various media platforms.
  2. Representation and Diversity: Women as an audience are increasingly demanding representation and diverse perspectives in media content. They seek stories that reflect their experiences, challenges, and achievements. Media outlets are responding by featuring more women in diverse roles, promoting gender equality, and exploring issues that are important to women.
  3. Shifting Cultural Norms: Women’s increased influence as an audience is also linked to changing cultural norms and societal expectations. As gender roles evolve and women gain more visibility and agency, media organizations are compelled to reflect these shifts in their content. This includes challenging stereotypes, highlighting women’s accomplishments, and presenting a more nuanced portrayal of women in various contexts.
  4. Digital and Social Media: The rise of digital and social media platforms has given women a greater voice and ability to engage with media content. Women use these platforms to express their opinions, share their experiences, and call out media representations that they find problematic. Media organizations are increasingly responsive to this feedback and are adapting their content to meet the expectations and demands of women as active participants in online discussions.
  5. Influencer Culture: The emergence of influencer culture has also provided women with a platform to shape media content. Female influencers, through their social media presence, can impact trends, promote certain products or causes, and amplify their perspectives. This has led to greater diversity and inclusivity in content creation, as influencers with different backgrounds and experiences reach wider audiences.

Overall, the influence of women as an audience is undeniable. Media organizations recognize the importance of appealing to female viewers and consumers, and they are adjusting their content accordingly. The growing demand for representation, diversity, and authentic portrayals of women is shaping the media landscape, leading to more inclusive and empowering content.

Question no.13  Elaborate some patterns of the Muslim world media. Describe salient features Islamic ethical guidelines for communication. /Concept of journalism in Islam and code of ethics of media in Islam.

The Muslim world encompasses a diverse range of countries with varying media landscapes, but there are some patterns and commonalities that can be observed in the media practices of Muslim-majority countries. It is important to note that these observations may not apply uniformly to every country or media outlet within the Muslim world. Additionally, media practices can vary significantly depending on factors such as the level of press freedom, cultural context, and political climate.

Some patterns of the Muslim world media include:

  1. Religious Influence: Islamic values and principles often play a significant role in shaping media content and practices in Muslim-majority countries. Religious themes, including Islamic rituals, events, and teachings, are often incorporated into media programming. Religious figures may have a prominent presence in media, offering guidance and commentary on various issues.
  2. Government Control and Regulation: Media in some Muslim-majority countries may be subject to varying degrees of government control and regulation. Press freedom and freedom of expression can be restricted in some cases, leading to limitations on independent journalism and critical reporting. State-owned or state-influenced media outlets may dominate the media landscape.
  3. Cultural Sensitivities: Media in Muslim-majority countries often reflect cultural sensitivities and norms prevalent within their societies. This can lead to certain topics being approached with caution or being subject to censorship. Content related to sexuality, politics, religious debates, and social issues may be regulated or restricted.
  4. Language Diversity: The Muslim world encompasses a wide range of languages, and media outlets cater to various linguistic communities. Arabic is a prominent language for media content, given its significance as the language of the Quran and its wide use across Muslim-majority countries. However, there are also media outlets operating in local languages, such as Urdu, Persian, Malay, and Turkish.

Regarding Islamic ethical guidelines for communication, there are several salient features that can be observed:

  1. Truthfulness and Accuracy: Islamic ethics emphasize the importance of truthfulness and accuracy in communication. Muslims are encouraged to speak the truth, avoid spreading falsehoods, and strive for accuracy in reporting and sharing information.
  2. Respect for Privacy: Islamic ethics emphasize respecting the privacy of individuals. Muslims are encouraged to protect the confidentiality and dignity of others, avoiding gossip or the dissemination of private information without legitimate reason or consent.
  3. Avoiding Slander and Backbiting: Islam prohibits slander and backbiting, which involve spreading false or harmful information about others. Muslims are encouraged to refrain from engaging in such practices and to promote positive and constructive communication.
  4. Sensitivity and Kindness: Islamic ethics emphasize the importance of being sensitive, compassionate, and kind in communication. Muslims are encouraged to use polite and respectful language, avoiding offensive or harsh speech. This extends to interactions both online and offline.
  5. Promoting Good and Forbidding Evil: Islamic ethical guidelines encourage promoting good values, justice, and moral conduct while speaking out against injustice, oppression, and unethical behavior. Muslims are encouraged to use their platforms for positive change and to contribute to the betterment of society.

It’s important to note that interpretations and practices of Islamic ethics may vary among individuals and communities. There can be diverse perspectives on the application of these guidelines in the realm of media and communication within the Muslim world.

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