AIOU Exam material Media Ethics and Laws- II (Code: 6604)

Mass Communication Semester-II

Important Questions with Answers prepared by Faiza Gul, FRilmi Team (Errors and omissions acceptable) Disclaimer: All Questions and Answers are Based on self assessment and It is only Guess material.

 Question no. 1 Elaborate the Law of Contempt of Court in Pakistan?                

The Law of Contempt of Court in Pakistan refers to the legal provisions that govern the offense of contempt of court and the actions that can be considered as contemptuous towards the judiciary. Contempt of court refers to any act or behavior that disrespects or obstructs the administration of justice or undermines the authority and dignity of the court.

The primary legislation that deals with contempt of court in Pakistan is the Contempt of Court Ordinance, 2003. This ordinance provides the framework for defining and punishing contemptuous behavior. The Supreme Court and High Courts have inherent powers to take action for contempt of court under this ordinance.

Contempt of court can be categorized into two types: civil contempt and criminal contempt.

  1. Civil Contempt: Civil contempt refers to any willful disobedience of any order, judgment, decree, direction, or process of the court, or any willful breach of an undertaking given to the court. It can also include any act that hinders or interferes with the administration of justice or the enforcement of a court order. The purpose of civil contempt is to ensure compliance with court orders and maintain the authority of the court.
  2. Criminal Contempt: Criminal contempt involves behavior that scandalizes or tends to scandalize, or lowers or tends to lower the authority of the court. It includes any act that prejudices or interferes with the due course of a judicial proceeding, obstructs the administration of justice, or interferes with the process of law. Criminal contempt is aimed at protecting the integrity and dignity of the court.

Under the Contempt of Court Ordinance, 2003, the following actions can be considered as contempt of court:

Any words, spoken or written, that scandalize or tend to scandalize the court or lower its authority. b. Any act that prejudices or interferes with the due course of a judicial proceeding or obstructs the administration of justice. c. Any act that interferes with the process of law. d. Willful disobedience of any order, judgment, decree, direction, or process of the court. e. Willful breach of an undertaking given to the court. f. Publication of any matter that may prejudice or interfere with the due course of a judicial proceeding or obstruct the administration of justice.

If someone is found guilty of contempt of court, they can be punished with imprisonment for a term up to six months, a fine not exceeding 100,000 Pakistani Rupees, or both. The court also has the power to initiate contempt proceedings on its own motion or on the application of any person aggrieved.

It is important to note that the law of contempt of court is intended to protect the independence, integrity, and authority of the judiciary. However, it is also essential to ensure that the law is not misused to stifle legitimate criticism or infringe upon freedom of speech and expression.

Question no. 2 Write a comprehensive note on PEMRA Legislation. / Describe and discuss the charter of PEMRA./ Elaborate different key terms used in PEMRA Rules.

PEMRA (Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority) is an autonomous regulatory body established in 2002 under the PEMRA Ordinance to regulate and oversee the electronic media in Pakistan. It is responsible for granting licenses, regulating content, ensuring compliance with broadcasting standards, and promoting a free and independent electronic media industry. The PEMRA legislation aims to provide a framework for the establishment, operation, and regulation of electronic media in the country.

The charter of PEMRA encompasses several key objectives and functions, including:

  1. Licensing: PEMRA is responsible for granting licenses for the establishment and operation of all broadcast media, including TV channels, FM radio stations, and cable networks. It ensures that licenses are granted through a transparent and competitive process, taking into account the interests of the public and promoting diversity in media ownership.
  2. Content Regulation: PEMRA sets standards for the content broadcasted on electronic media, ensuring that it adheres to ethical, cultural, religious, and social norms of the Pakistani society. It prohibits the broadcast of content that is obscene, indecent, vulgar, or against the integrity, security, or defense of Pakistan.
  3. Media Ownership and Cross-Media Ownership: PEMRA regulates media ownership to prevent monopolies and promote competition. It establishes limits on the number of licenses that can be held by a single entity or individual. Cross-media ownership rules ensure that one entity cannot own both electronic and print media in the same area.
  4. Advertising: PEMRA regulates the content and timing of advertisements to protect consumers from misleading or harmful advertisements. It sets guidelines for the duration, frequency, and nature of advertisements, ensuring that they do not exceed permissible limits and do not interfere with the regular programming.
  5. Complaints and Grievance Redressal: PEMRA provides a mechanism for individuals and organizations to lodge complaints against any violation of its rules and regulations. It has the authority to investigate complaints and take appropriate action against broadcasters found guilty of misconduct or non-compliance.
  6. Social Responsibility: PEMRA emphasizes the social responsibility of electronic media. It encourages the broadcast media to promote national integration, cultural diversity, and social cohesion. It also promotes public awareness and education on various social issues, including health, environment, and education.

In the PEMRA rules and regulations, several key terms are used, which include:

  1. Licensee: The entity or individual holding a license issued by PEMRA for operating a TV channel, FM radio station, or cable network.
  2. Code of Conduct: The set of ethical guidelines and standards that broadcasters must adhere to, ensuring responsible and unbiased programming. It includes provisions related to content, advertising, news, and public interest.
  3. Electronic Media: The means of transmitting audio, video, or data signals through wire, radio, optical, or other electromagnetic systems.
  4. Broadcasting Standards: The rules and regulations set by PEMRA to ensure that the content broadcasted on electronic media is in accordance with legal and moral standards, respects cultural and religious sensitivities, and promotes public interest.
  5. Complaints Council: A body established by PEMRA to handle complaints and grievances lodged by individuals or organizations against violations of its rules and regulations. The council comprises representatives from different sectors of society and ensures fair and impartial handling of complaints.
  6. Public Interest: The welfare, well-being, and rights of the public as a whole. Broadcasters are required to consider public interest in their programming decisions and avoid content that may harm public sentiment or violate legal and ethical standards.

It is important to note that the PEMRA legislation and its rules are aimed at promoting a vibrant, diverse, and responsible electronic media industry in Pakistan while ensuring compliance with legal and ethical standards. The charter of PEMRA and its key terms provide a framework for the regulation and operation of electronic media in the country.

Question no.3 Elaborate the code of ethics and member statement of PEMRA.

PEMRA (Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority) has established a Code of Ethics and Member Statement to provide guidelines and standards for broadcasters in Pakistan. These guidelines are designed to promote responsible and ethical behavior in the electronic media industry. Let’s elaborate on the key aspects of the Code of Ethics and Member Statement:

  1. Code of Ethics: The Code of Ethics outlines the fundamental principles and standards that broadcasters are expected to follow. It covers various aspects of programming, content, advertising, and professionalism. Here are some key elements of the Code of Ethics:

a. Accuracy and Fairness: Broadcasters are required to present news, information, and current affairs accurately and fairly. They must ensure that facts are verified and presented in a balanced and unbiased manner.

b. Respect for Cultural and Religious Sensitivities: Broadcasters should respect cultural and religious sensitivities of the Pakistani society. They should avoid content that may be offensive or promote hatred or discrimination based on religion, ethnicity, or any other factor.

c. Privacy and Confidentiality: Broadcasters must respect the privacy and confidentiality of individuals, particularly in matters related to personal life, health, or sensitive issues. They should obtain consent or exercise caution before broadcasting such information.

d. Decency and Obscenity: Content broadcasted should maintain standards of decency and avoid obscenity. Broadcasters should avoid showing explicit or offensive material that may be deemed inappropriate for general viewership.

e. Social Responsibility: Broadcasters are expected to fulfill their social responsibility by promoting national integration, cultural diversity, and social cohesion. They should contribute to public awareness on important issues such as health, education, environment, and human rights.

f. Conflict of Interest: Broadcasters should avoid conflicts of interest that may compromise their impartiality or credibility. They should disclose any potential conflicts and ensure that they do not unduly influence their programming or reporting.

  • Member Statement: The Member Statement is a declaration signed by members of the electronic media industry, including broadcasters, producers, and journalists. By signing the Member Statement, individuals and organizations commit to upholding the principles and standards set forth in the Code of Ethics. The Member Statement emphasizes the following:

a. Professionalism: Members pledge to maintain high professional standards in their work, adhering to journalistic ethics, accuracy, and fairness.

b. Independence and Impartiality: Members commit to maintaining independence and impartiality in their reporting and programming, avoiding any influence that may compromise the integrity of their work.

c. Compliance with Laws and Regulations: Members agree to comply with all applicable laws, regulations, and guidelines set by PEMRA and other relevant authorities.

d. Social Responsibility: Members recognize their role in promoting social responsibility through their content, contributing to the betterment of society, and respecting cultural and religious sensitivities.

e. Continuous Learning and Improvement: Members commit to continuous learning and professional development to enhance their skills, knowledge, and ethical conduct.

The Code of Ethics and Member Statement serve as important guidelines for broadcasters in Pakistan, ensuring that they operate within the framework of legal and ethical standards. These guidelines aim to promote responsible journalism, protect public interest, and maintain the credibility and integrity of the electronic media industry.

Question no.  4 Describe the application procedure for satellite television license in Pakistan./ Describe the application procedure for satellite television license in Pakistan.

The application procedure for a satellite television license in Pakistan involves several steps and requires compliance with the regulations set forth by PEMRA (Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority). Below is a general outline of the application process:

  1. Eligibility Assessment: The first step is to determine if you meet the eligibility criteria set by PEMRA for obtaining a satellite television license. These criteria include factors such as financial standing, technical capabilities, and compliance with PEMRA regulations.
  2. Preparing the Application: Once eligibility is established, you need to prepare the application documents. This typically includes:

a. Application Form: Fill out the application form provided by PEMRA, providing accurate and complete information about your organization, management, shareholders, technical capabilities, and financial standing.

b. Business Plan: Prepare a comprehensive business plan that outlines your proposed programming, target audience, market analysis, technical infrastructure, financial projections, and any other relevant details.

c. Financial Statements: Submit audited financial statements of your organization, including income statements, balance sheets, and cash flow statements, demonstrating your financial stability and capability to operate a satellite television channel.

d. Technical Proposal: Provide detailed technical specifications of your satellite uplink and downlink facilities, including equipment, transmission parameters, and backup systems.

e. Content Strategy: Present a content strategy that aligns with PEMRA’s regulations and guidelines, demonstrating your commitment to ethical programming, cultural sensitivity, and adherence to PEMRA’s Code of Ethics.

f. Ownership Structure: Disclose the ownership structure of your organization, including details of shareholders, directors, and any affiliations or partnerships with other entities.

  • Application Fee: Pay the required application fee as specified by PEMRA. The fee may vary depending on the nature and scale of the satellite television license.
  • Submission of Application: Submit the completed application form along with all supporting documents to the PEMRA headquarters or the designated regional office, as per the instructions provided by PEMRA.
  • Application Review and Processing: PEMRA will review your application and conduct a thorough evaluation of your proposed satellite television channel. This includes scrutinizing your technical capabilities, financial stability, content strategy, and compliance with PEMRA regulations.
  • Security Clearance: PEMRA may require security clearances from relevant authorities before granting a satellite television license. This is to ensure that the license applicant and its management do not have any criminal record or pose any security threat.
  • Decision and Granting of License: Based on the evaluation and security clearance, PEMRA will make a decision regarding the issuance of the satellite television license. If approved, you will be issued a license, specifying the terms and conditions of operation.

It is important to note that the specific requirements and procedures may vary, and it is advisable to consult the official guidelines and regulations provided by PEMRA for the most accurate and up-to-date information.

Question no. 5 What are landing rights? Describe the procedure to acquire landing rights.   

The term “landing rights” is commonly used in satellite communications without being legally defined or identified

Landing rights refer to an authorization given to the satellite operator to enter a national market to provide a communication service from outer spacea fee payable to the State that receives the signal on its territory (in exchange of some guarantees).

The procedure to acquire landing rights:

PEMRA will have the exclusive right to issue re-establishment licenses performance of all broadcast media and distribution services, as long as this the exclusive right shall be exercised by PEMRA in accordance with the principles of justice and equality apply to all applicants for licenses, their eligibility will be based on a pre-announced notification process. In the case of radio, television broadcasting and multi-service broadcasting (MMDS) channel licenses, this will be done through an open, transparent bidding process if the number of applications exceeds the number of licenses to be issued PEMRA. No person or organization may participate in the broadcast or operation of CTV without after obtaining a license issued by PEMRA.

The Landing rights are permits that must be obtained by operators of their satellite used in a particular country. Traditionally, the system was used commercially satellite systems designed to compete with older government satellite systems such as Intelsat. According to the treaty, governments were required to grant new land rights competitive satellite systems.With the allocation of state-owned systems, access rights have been granted a new objective has been adopted, which allows countries to control which foreign satellites are in control serve their place.

Permission with the right holder:

“Landing Right Holder” means a company that has successfully obtained approval from the Authority to distribute / market a particular TV channel to licensed service providers in Pakistan.

The right-holder is authorized to market and distribute “authorized channel. This permission grants limited access to the channel “” and does not constitute or grant any right to broadcast or broadcast events whether live or recorded or link to the signal of any event from Pakistan.

This permit will be valid for five (05) years, from the date of issue, subject to the annual renewal fee.For the purposes of liaison the parties will be required to obtain a special permit under section 39 of the PEMRA Ordinance 2002 and Act 29 of the PEMRA Rules 2002, respectively. The licensee will seek the approval of the Authority by temporarily connecting the event to a specific event, time and place prior to the event.

Copyright Owner: “M / s.” you are responsible for the Access to “channel” “rights and all liabilities and obligations directly or indirectly, arising from those access rights.

General terms and conditions:This permit will be valid for the whole country (subject to any local restrictions imposed by the Head in respect of its agreement with the Resident Rights Officer) This license shall be valid for a period of five years from the date of issue of the year. The right-holder owner will distribute the authorized channel at the time of the permit fee. The Landowning Rights Owner will submit the audited accounts to the Authority within 90 days of the close of each financial year of the Copyright holder. The Landowning Owner may enter into an agreement with the service provider (s) by providing an authorized channel for multiple registrars, approved by the Authority, subject to the terms and conditions approved by the Authority.

Fees  and Payments:

The Owner of the Land Rights will pay the Residence Fee, Annual Renewal and 5% of the Total Benefit as determined by the Authority. In the event that the authorized channel is encrypted, we will only charge such fees from service providers as determined by the Authority.

Renewal Process:

The permit will be renewed by the Authority in accordance with the following terms and conditions:

  • The Owner of the Immigration Rights must pay during the period of this permit, the fixed and variable parts of the annual renewal fee as determined by the Authority.
  • The renewal fee will be considered by the Authority. 5.2 Late payment of annual renewal fees will include the levying of more than 15% of the monthly rights up to 35%; after which the access rights will be automatically removed.

Question no.6  Define the following terms: Broadcast Station, Programming Mix.

A broadcast station is a facility or entity that transmits audio or video content to a wide audience over the airwaves, cable networks, or satellite systems. It serves as a platform for delivering programming to viewers or listeners. Broadcast stations can include television stations, radio stations, and online streaming platforms. Here are examples of different types of broadcast stations:

  1. Television Station: A television station is a broadcast station that transmits video content over the airwaves or through cable or satellite systems. It offers a wide range of programming, including news, entertainment shows, sports events, documentaries, and movies. Examples of television stations include NBC, BBC, CNN, ABC, or local TV stations GEO, ARY etc.
  2. Radio Station: A radio station is a broadcast station that transmits audio content over the airwaves or through digital platforms. It provides music, talk shows, news, and other forms of audio entertainment to listeners. Examples of radio stations include BBC Radio, fm 101 and fm 98 etc
  3. Online Streaming Platforms: With the rise of the internet, online streaming platforms have become popular broadcast stations. These platforms deliver audio or video content to users through the internet. Examples include YouTube, Netflix, or podcasting platforms like Apple Podcasts or Spotify Podcasts. These platforms enable users to access a wide variety of content, including movies, TV shows, music, podcasts, and live streaming events.
  4. Community Radio Station: A community radio station is a localized broadcast station that serves a specific community or geographical area. These stations are often run by nonprofit organizations, educational institutions, or local communities. They provide programming that caters to the interests and needs of the local community, including news, music, cultural content, educational programs, and community-focused discussions.

Example: A community radio station in a small town that broadcasts local news, interviews with community members, music from local artists, and programs about local events and issues.

These examples demonstrate the different types of broadcast stations that exist, each serving a specific purpose and target audience. They play a significant role in disseminating information, entertainment, and cultural content to a wide range of viewers or listeners.

Programming Mix

Programming mix refers to the combination of different types of content offered by a broadcast station or media platform to cater to the diverse interests and preferences of its audience. It involves selecting and scheduling various programs, shows, or segments to create a balanced and appealing lineup. Here are examples of programming mix in different broadcast stations:

  1. Television Programming Mix: A television programming mix may include a variety of genres and formats to cater to different viewer preferences. For example:
  2. News: Daily news bulletins, current affairs programs, and investigative journalism shows.
  3. Entertainment: Sitcoms, dramas, reality shows, game shows, and talent competitions.
  4. Sports: Live sports events, analysis programs, and sports talk shows.
  5. Documentaries: Educational or informative programs that explore various subjects or cultures.
  6. Lifestyle: Cooking shows, home improvement programs, travel shows, and fashion-related content.
  7. Children’s Programming: Animated series, educational programs, and children’s game shows.

Example: A television channel’s programming mix may include a morning news show, followed by a mid-day drama series, an evening sports program, and a prime-time reality show, appealing to different viewer preferences throughout the day.

  • Radio Programming Mix: A radio programming mix offers a diverse range of content genres and formats to engage listeners throughout the day. Examples include:
  • Music: Different music genres like pop, rock, classical, country, jazz, and hip-hop.
  • Talk Shows: Discussions on various topics such as current affairs, politics, health, technology, or lifestyle.
  • News and Updates: Regular news bulletins, weather reports, and traffic updates.
  • Interviews: Conversations with celebrities, experts, or influential figures.
  • Phone-ins and Live Shows: Interactive programs where listeners can call in, request songs, or participate in discussions.
  • Special Events: Live coverage of concerts, music festivals, or community events.

Example morning drive-time show with music and news updates, followed by a mid-day talk show, an afternoon block of popular music, and an evening live show featuring listener requests and interactions.

  • Online Streaming Platforms: Online streaming platforms offer a diverse programming mix with a wide range of content to cater to different viewer preferences. Examples include:
  • Movies and TV Shows: Original series, movies, documentaries, and classic films from various genres.
  • Music: On-demand music streaming with personalized playlists and recommendations.
  • Podcasts: A variety of podcasts covering different topics like true crime, comedy, education, or storytelling.
  • Live Events: Streaming live sports events, concerts, or exclusive performances.
  • Educational Content: Online courses, tutorials, or informational videos.

Example: A streaming platform’s programming mix may include a mix of popular movies, trending TV shows, curated music playlists, a selection of popular podcasts, and live-streamed events like sports matches or music concerts.

These examples demonstrate how a programming mix can offer a diverse range of content to cater to the interests and preferences of the audience, keeping them engaged and entertained. Broadcast stations and media platforms aim to provide a well-rounded programming mix to attract and retain viewers or listeners.

Question no. 7  Explain the Law of Defamation and contempt of Court in Pakistan.     

The Law of Defamation and Contempt of Court in Pakistan are two separate legal concepts, each with its own set of principles and regulations. Here’s an overview of each:

  1. Law of Defamation: The law of defamation in Pakistan deals with false statements or communications that harm the reputation of an individual or an organization. Defamation can occur through spoken words (slander) or written or printed words (libel). The main purpose of defamation laws is to protect the reputation and dignity of individuals from unjustified attacks or false accusations.

In Pakistan, defamation laws are primarily governed by the Pakistan Penal Code (PPC) and the Defamation Ordinance, 2002. Under these laws, defamation is a criminal offense punishable by imprisonment and/or a fine. To establish a defamation claim, the following elements must typically be proven:

  • False Statement: The statement made about the plaintiff must be false and not based on truth.
  • Publication: The false statement must be communicated to a third party or published in some form.
  • Harm to Reputation: The false statement must harm the reputation of the plaintiff, causing damage to their standing in the community or leading to loss of esteem.
  • Defenses: The defendant may raise certain defenses, such as truth, fair comment, or privilege, to avoid liability.

It is worth noting that defamation laws are subject to interpretation by the courts and are balanced against the right to freedom of speech and expression. Additionally, civil remedies are available for defamation cases where the aggrieved party can seek damages in a civil lawsuit.

  • Contempt of Court: Contempt of Court refers to any act or behavior that disrespects, obstructs, or undermines the authority, dignity, or processes of the court. It is essential for maintaining the integrity and effectiveness of the judicial system. Contempt can be categorized as civil contempt or criminal contempt, each with its own characteristics.

In Pakistan, the Contempt of Court Act, 1976, regulates contemptuous behavior and provides guidelines for dealing with contempt cases. The Act defines contempt broadly and includes actions such as interfering with the administration of justice, scandalizing the court, disobedience of court orders, or publishing materials that prejudice a case.

Contempt of Court can lead to penalties such as fines, imprisonment, or both, depending on the nature and severity of the offense. The Act also grants the court the power to initiate contempt proceedings on its own motion or based on complaints filed by individuals or entities.

It is important to note that contempt laws are intended to protect the judiciary and ensure fair proceedings. However, they must be balanced with the fundamental rights of freedom of speech and expression.

It is advisable to consult the specific statutes and seek legal counsel for a comprehensive understanding of the Law of Defamation and Contempt of Court in Pakistan, as they may be subject to amendments and interpretations by the courts.

Top of Form

Question no. 8 Critically analyze the variations, violations and controversies of print media

ethics in different parts of the globe./ How can code of ethics be practiced in news and current affair programs?

Print media ethics vary across different parts of the globe due to cultural, social, and political factors. While many countries have established ethical guidelines for print media, violations and controversies are not uncommon. Here is a critical analysis of the variations, violations, and controversies of print media ethics in different regions:

  1. Western Countries: In Western countries, print media ethics are often guided by principles such as accuracy, fairness, objectivity, and independence. However, violations and controversies still arise, including:
  2. Sensationalism: Some tabloid newspapers prioritize sensational and exaggerated stories to attract readership, compromising accuracy and ethical reporting.
  3. Bias and Partisanship: Political bias and partisanship can influence media outlets, leading to biased reporting and the promotion of specific agendas.
  4. Privacy Intrusion: The line between public interest and invasion of privacy is sometimes blurred, with media outlets publishing intrusive stories about public figures and private individuals.
  5. Fake News: The rise of digital platforms has made it easier for misinformation and fake news to spread through print media, damaging public trust.
  6. Developing Countries: In developing countries, print media ethics face specific challenges due to limited resources, political interference, and social constraints. Some key issues include:
  7. Government Control: State-owned or state-controlled media can be subject to government censorship and manipulation, leading to biased reporting and suppression of dissenting voices.
  8. Lack of Professional Standards: Weak regulatory frameworks and a lack of training and education can result in substandard journalistic practices, including plagiarism, fabrication, and inadequate fact-checking.
  9. Media Ownership: Concentration of media ownership in the hands of a few individuals or corporations can lead to biased reporting and the suppression of alternative perspectives.
  10. Intimidation and Threats: Journalists in developing countries often face threats, harassment, and violence when reporting on sensitive topics, leading to self-censorship and compromised ethics.
  11. Non-Democratic Countries: In non-democratic countries, print media ethics face severe challenges due to strict censorship, state control, and repression of press freedom. Key issues include:
  12. State Propaganda: Media outlets are often used as tools of propaganda to promote the government’s interests and suppress dissenting opinions.
  13. Lack of Press Freedom: Independent journalism is heavily restricted, leading to self-censorship and limited coverage of critical issues.
  14. Harassment and Imprisonment: Journalists who challenge the government or report on sensitive topics face intimidation, imprisonment, or violence, resulting in a stifling of free and ethical journalism.
  15. Limited Access to Information: Governments control information flow, making it difficult for journalists to access accurate and reliable sources.

Overall, variations, violations, and controversies in print media ethics are prevalent across different parts of the globe. These challenges can undermine the fundamental principles of journalism, including truthfulness, accuracy, independence, and accountability. Promoting media literacy, strengthening regulatory frameworks, supporting independent journalism, and advocating for press freedom are crucial in addressing these issues and ensuring ethical practices in print media worldwide.

Question no. 9 How would you elaborate ethics in electronic media with example?

The code of ethics serves as a guiding framework for journalists and media professionals to uphold ethical standards in their work. When it comes to news and current affairs programs, the following practices can help ensure the effective implementation of the code of ethics:

  1. Accuracy and Fact-Checking:
  2. Verify information from multiple reliable sources before reporting.
  3. Cross-check facts, figures, and statements to ensure accuracy.
  4. Clearly distinguish between facts, opinions, and speculation.
  5. Correct errors promptly and prominently.
  6. Fairness and Objectivity:
  7. Present a balanced view of events and issues, providing multiple perspectives.
  8. Avoid personal biases and ensure fairness in reporting.
  9. Give all parties involved in a story a chance to respond or provide their viewpoints.
  10. Clearly label and differentiate between news and opinion content.
  11. Independence and Avoiding Conflicts of Interest:
  12. Maintain editorial independence and avoid undue influence or conflicts of interest.
  13. Disclose any potential conflicts of interest that may impact the credibility or objectivity of the reporting.
  14. Refrain from accepting gifts, favors, or any form of inducement that compromises journalistic integrity.
  15. Privacy and Sensitivity:
  16. Respect the privacy and dignity of individuals, particularly in sensitive or traumatic situations.
  17. Obtain consent when using personal information or images.
  18. Be cautious when reporting on sensitive topics, such as crime victims, children, or mental health issues.
  19. Minimize harm and avoid unnecessary intrusion into the lives of individuals.
  20. Transparency and Accountability:
  21. Clearly disclose sources and methodologies used in news gathering and reporting.
  22. Provide transparent corrections for any factual errors.
  23. Encourage feedback and address audience complaints or concerns promptly.
  24. Participate in self-regulatory mechanisms and adhere to industry standards.
  25. Ethical Treatment of Sources:
  26. Protect the identity and confidentiality of sources when necessary.
  27. Obtain informed consent from sources before using their information.
  28. Avoid misrepresentation or manipulation of information provided by sources.
  29. Responsible Use of Social Media:
  30. Exercise caution when using social media platforms, ensuring accuracy, fairness, and responsibility in posts and interactions.
  31. Differentiate personal and professional accounts to maintain credibility.
  32. Refrain from sharing unverified information or engaging in online harassment or bullying.

It is important for media organizations to provide training, resources, and a supportive environment for journalists to adhere to the code of ethics. Regular discussions, ethical guidelines, and a strong editorial oversight can help foster a culture of ethical journalism in news and current affairs programs.

Question no. 10  What is public relations? Write down the ethics of public relations./ Discuss ethical foundations of public relations.                                                                                                           

Public relations (PR) is a strategic communication practice aimed at building mutually beneficial relationships between an organization or individual and its target audience, stakeholders, and the general public. PR professionals use various communication tools and techniques to manage and shape public perceptions, enhance reputation, and establish positive connections.

Ethics in public relations are crucial to maintaining credibility, trust, and transparency in the profession. The following key ethical principles guide PR practitioners:

  1. Honesty and Truthfulness: PR professionals should be honest, truthful, and accurate in all communications, avoiding misleading or deceptive practices. They should present information in a transparent manner, ensuring that statements, claims, and statistics are based on factual evidence.
  2. Integrity and Professionalism: PR professionals should demonstrate high ethical standards and act with integrity, professionalism, and accountability. They should uphold the values of honesty, fairness, and respect in their interactions with clients, colleagues, the media, and the public.
  3. Objectivity and Independence: PR professionals should maintain objectivity and independence in their work. They should provide unbiased and balanced information, avoiding conflicts of interest or undue influence that may compromise their professional judgment or integrity.
  4. Confidentiality and Privacy: PR professionals should respect the confidentiality of sensitive information shared with them by clients or organizations. They should also respect individuals’ privacy rights and obtain proper consent before using personal information in communications.
  5. Disclosure and Transparency: PR professionals should disclose their affiliations, relationships, or any potential conflicts of interest that may affect their credibility or independence. They should clearly identify sponsored content or promotional materials to avoid misleading the public.
  6. Respect and Diversity: PR professionals should respect diverse perspectives, cultures, and values. They should avoid engaging in discriminatory practices or promoting content that incites hatred, discrimination, or harm to individuals or groups.
  7. Responsible Communication: PR professionals should ensure that their communication practices adhere to legal and regulatory frameworks. They should avoid spreading false information, engaging in defamation, or violating intellectual property rights.
  8. Social Responsibility: PR professionals should consider the social, environmental, and ethical implications of their work. They should promote responsible practices, support initiatives that contribute to the betterment of society, and avoid engaging in activities that may harm the public interest.
  9. Professional Development and Continuous Learning: PR professionals should engage in ongoing professional development and stay updated with industry standards, best practices, and ethical guidelines. They should strive to enhance their knowledge and skills to serve their clients and the public more effectively.

Adhering to these ethical principles helps PR professionals maintain trust, credibility, and long-term relationships with their clients, stakeholders, and the public. It also contributes to the overall reputation and integrity of the PR industry as a whole.

Question no. 11  Analyze media freedom and social responsibility./ Discuss freedom of expression. Analyze it with the privacy rights.                                        

Media freedom and social responsibility are two important and interconnected concepts that play a significant role in a democratic society. Here is an analysis of media freedom, social responsibility, freedom of expression, and their relationship with privacy rights:

  1. Media Freedom: Media freedom refers to the right of journalists and media organizations to operate independently, without undue interference or censorship from the government or other external entities. It encompasses the freedom to gather and report news, express opinions, and disseminate information without fear of reprisal or persecution.

Media freedom is essential for the functioning of a democratic society as it allows for the free flow of information, the ability to hold governments accountable, and the fostering of public debate and discourse. It enables journalists to investigate and report on issues of public interest, expose wrongdoing, and provide a diverse range of perspectives.

  • Social Responsibility: While media freedom is crucial, media organizations also have a social responsibility to uphold ethical standards, provide accurate information, and act in the best interest of the public. Social responsibility in media involves balancing the right to freedom of expression with the need to respect societal values, promote public welfare, and avoid harm.

Media organizations have a duty to provide reliable and verified information, present diverse viewpoints, avoid sensationalism and misinformation, and prioritize the public interest. They should also adhere to ethical guidelines and industry standards, and be accountable for their actions.

  • Freedom of Expression: Freedom of expression is a fundamental human right recognized in international human rights law. It encompasses the right to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas through any medium, including the media. Freedom of expression is crucial for the functioning of a democratic society, enabling individuals to express their opinions, participate in public discourse, and contribute to social, political, and cultural development.

However, freedom of expression is not absolute and may be subject to limitations prescribed by law. These limitations often relate to national security, public order, protection of the rights and reputation of others, and safeguarding public health or morals. Balancing freedom of expression with other rights and societal interests can be complex and requires careful consideration.

  • Relationship with Privacy Rights: Privacy rights are also protected under international human rights law and play a crucial role in individual autonomy, dignity, and personal development. Privacy rights encompass the right to control one’s personal information, safeguard private communications, and protect one’s personal space from intrusion.

The relationship between freedom of expression and privacy rights can sometimes be challenging. While freedom of expression enables the dissemination of information and ideas, it must be balanced with the need to respect individuals’ privacy. Journalists and media organizations have an ethical duty to avoid unnecessary intrusion into individuals’ private lives and ensure that personal information is obtained and used responsibly.

Legal frameworks and professional ethics seek to strike a balance between freedom of expression and privacy rights. Journalists are expected to exercise responsible journalism, obtaining consent when reporting on personal matters, minimizing harm, and respecting individuals’ privacy, particularly in sensitive cases.

In short, media freedom and social responsibility are interconnected concepts that ensure the free flow of information, accountability, and public discourse. Freedom of expression is a fundamental right, but it must be balanced with social responsibility, ethical considerations, and respect for privacy rights to maintain a healthy and ethical media environment.

Question No. 12 Elaborate the code of ethics and member statement of PRSA.

The Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) is a professional organization that represents and provides resources for public relations practitioners in the United States. PRSA has a Code of Ethics that outlines the ethical principles and guidelines for its members. Additionally, PRSA has a Member Statement that emphasizes the importance of ethical behavior and professional conduct. Let’s elaborate on both:

  1. PRSA Code of Ethics: The PRSA Code of Ethics consists of four core values and six professional provisions that guide the ethical practice of public relations professionals. The core values are:
  2. Advocacy: PR professionals serve as advocates for their clients or organizations while also considering the public interest.
  3. Honesty: Professionals are truthful and transparent in their communications and relationships.
  4. Expertise: Professionals advance their knowledge and skills to provide effective and ethical counsel.
  5. Independence: Professionals act independently, providing objective advice and avoiding conflicts of interest.

The professional provisions of the PRSA Code of Ethics further expand on these core values and include guidelines on loyalty, fairness, disclosure of information, safeguarding confidences, conflicts of interest, and enhancing the profession.

  • PRSA Member Statement: The PRSA Member Statement is a declaration that reinforces the commitment of PRSA members to ethical conduct, professionalism, and the advancement of public relations as a profession. The Member Statement emphasizes the following key points:
  • Professional Values: Members commit to upholding the highest professional standards, including integrity, honesty, fairness, and respect.
  • Ethical Practice: Members pledge to act ethically, engaging in responsible advocacy, adhering to legal and ethical standards, and maintaining the trust of clients, employers, and the public.
  • Professional Development: Members strive to continually enhance their professional knowledge, skills, and expertise to provide the best possible service to their clients or organizations.
  • Diversity and Inclusion: Members promote diversity and inclusion, respecting and valuing the perspectives and contributions of individuals from diverse backgrounds and cultures.
  • Mentorship and Collaboration: Members commit to supporting and mentoring fellow professionals, fostering a spirit of collaboration and ethical behavior within the industry.

Both the PRSA Code of Ethics and Member Statement serve as guiding documents for PR professionals, encouraging ethical behavior, professionalism, and the responsible practice of public relations. These guidelines aim to uphold the reputation and credibility of the profession, build public trust, and foster positive relationships with stakeholders.

Question No. 13  Write down the OEMRAS code of ethics for advertisements on electronics media.

Advertising ethics are the moral principles that govern how a business communicates with members of its target audience. Advertising has a set of defined principles that outline the type of communication that can take place between a potential buyer and a seller of goods or services. An example of ethical advertising is an ad that presents true statements in a decent manner, although the definition of decency may vary between individuals.

The purpose of advertising is to promote a product, service, or idea to a target audience with the goal of increasing awareness, interest, and sales. Advertising can take many forms, including print ads, television commercials, radio spots, billboards, online ads, and social media campaigns. The main purpose of advertising is to persuade potential customers to buy a product or service by creating a desire for it or by highlighting its unique features and benefits. Advertising can also be used to reinforce brand loyalty and to create a positive image of a company or organization.

Code of Ethics define the legal as well as ethical rules and norms of creating and broadcasting an ad. It restrains an advertiser to promote any product/service through unreliable, false, and immoral information. Such kind of language and information may damage someone’s fundamental right, business reputation, and can stain their honor and dignity. So, the law prevents any sort of ad that infringes on public values, norms, and morality.

Purpose of Code of Ethics for Advertisement

The purpose of a Code of Ethics for Advertisement is to provide guidelines and standards for ethical behavior in the advertising industry. Such codes are developed by industry organizations and professional associations to ensure that advertisers follow ethical and responsible practices in their advertising campaigns.

Some of the key areas covered by a Code of Ethics for Advertisement may include:

Truthfulness: Advertisers must ensure that all claims made in their advertising are truthful and accurate.

Respect for Privacy: Advertisers must respect the privacy of consumers and must not use their personal information for advertising purposes without their consent.

Responsibility: Advertisers must be responsible for the content of their advertising and must take into account the potential impact on vulnerable groups, such as children.

Professionalism: Advertisers must conduct themselves in a professional manner and must not engage in behavior that could damage the reputation of the advertising industry.

Fair Competition: Advertisers must ensure that their advertising does not unfairly denigrate competitors or misrepresent their products or services.

By adhering to a Code of Ethics for Advertisement, advertisers can help to promote ethical and responsible practices in the industry, build trust with consumers, and maintain the integrity of the advertising profession.

The following type of advertisements are considered as illegal/immoral and prohibited by the law

False or Misleading Information Any ad must not contain any sort of claim, which is false, deceptive, or ambiguous to public. It includes false promises, partial truth, exaggerated commitment, false price, etc. It is important to know that such kind of content is not limited only to verbal or written claim, but rather it is also applicable to images, video, and other sort of demonstration.

Inaccurate Testimonials  When a person gives his opinion or talks about his experiences regarding any product/service, he must not give fake information. Law discourages false and deceptive testimonials.

Provoking Statements  Any sort of statement, insulting phrase, immoral comparisons, etc. is prohibited. Insulting phrase includes any sort of disrespectful comment regarding a race, nationality, profession, cast, sex, social background, age, religion, language, etc.

Offensive Materials  All material used in an ad such as verbal and textual communication, audio, video, and images must be decent for the general public. Any material used in an ad, which is offensive, obscene, or indecent to the common people is outlawed as per the Standards of Practice.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top