AIOU Basic Concept in Social Science- II (5638)

  Mass Communication Semester-IV Important Questions with Answers prepared by Faiza Gul, FRilmi Team  (Errors and omissions acceptable) Disclaimer: All Questions and Answers are Based on self assessment and It is only Guess material

Question No. 1 Explain the term social psychology. Also explain psychoanalytic theory and symbolic-interaction theory./ Also discuss the major Social Psychological theories.

Social psychology is the study of your mind and behavior with other people. Social psychology looks at your personality, interpersonal relationships, and group behavior. It therefore looks at human behavior as influenced by other people and the conditions under which social behavior and feelings occur. Social psychology is the branch of psychological science mainly concerned with understanding how the presence of others affects our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.

The Pros and Cons Of Psychology:

Psychology is derived from two term which are study (ology) and soul (psyche) or mind in which it bring a clear meaning of psychology is the study of mind. It was Wilhelm Wundt as known as the “father of psychology’ using scientific research methods to study non-physical structure such as thought, experiences, and emotions of human mind. 

Major Social Psychological Theories:

1.   Psychoanalytic Theory:

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) is the founder of psychoanalytic theory. This theory assumes that every person has a given amount of vital psychic or mental energy called libido energy. The libido, the source of this psychic energy and the various channels through which it is expressed, are of utmost importance to personality development. The unconscious part of the mind consists of emotions, desires, instincts, and knowledge of which the person is not aware. Yet it has an influence on individual’s behaviour.

2.   Social Learning Theory:

There are a large of number of theories based on the principles basic principles of social-learning theory but for our purpose we will present the basic principles of social-learning theory from which the more specific theories have been derived. Behaviorism is the traditional term used for social-learning theory. Social-learning theory argues that theories of human behavior must be built on observable events and processes, and reject unobservable mentalistic concepts and processes such as the id, ego, repression, and so on. 

3.   Social exchange Theory:

Social-exchange theory is based on learning theory. This theory explains social behaviour in terms of the mutual reinforcement people exchange with each other. It explains how individuals seek to initiate exchanges with others by weighing the “profit” they would anticipate from potential changes with alternative partners.

4.   Cognitive Theory

Cognitive theories of human behaviour stress mental processes, such as – rrceptions, knowledge, ideas, and expectations, as the major determinants of behaviour, “he processes of gathering information, giving it meaning, organizing it into knowledge, .ad similar mental activities are seen as the most important component of human shaviour. The un-observable nature of these mantel events has hindered the empirical isting of cognitive theories. 

5. Symbolic-interaction Theory

This theory emerged in the early nineteenth century having roots in philosophy, psychology, and sociology. George Herbert Mead (1934) was the most influential spokesperson of this theory. The focus of the theory is upon human social interaction. Social interaction, the theory assumes, can best be understood by studying humans because people evidently possess the ability to perform the process of thinking, reasoning, and planning, which is not possessed by other animals. Thus, the theory calls attention to cognitive processes and therefore has a psychological base. 

6.   Cognitive-Consistence Theory:

Cognitions are those things that each of us uses to make sense out of our everyday worlds. It includes our perceptions — how we perceive and code events and experiences that occur around us as well as the knowledge, opinions, and beliefs that we hold about ourselves, about our behavior, and about our environment. The question of how these interdependent cognitive elements, organized together into larger whole has been one of the primary concerns of consistency theory.

Question No. 2 Describe the process of Socialization. Also evaluate different theories of Socialization./  What is socialization and how far it is important for the development of Society?/ Discuss in detail three major theories of SELF and Socialization.

Socialization is a process that introduces people to social norms and customs. This process helps individuals function well in society, and, in turn, helps society run smoothly. Family members, teachers, religious leaders, and peers all play roles in a person’s socialization.

Human families are born without any culture.  They must be transformed by their parents, teachers, and others into cultural and socially adept animals.  The general process of acquiring culture is referred to as socialization.

Ø  Process of Socialization:

The process of socialization starts from very birth of child. But that he lacks that essential elements of the social life. As he grows, he molds himself according to the needs of the society.

§  Rearing up: Brining Up:

They may parents rear their child, the way he shall grow and acquire qualities and traits that are result of that way of rearing up.

§  Identification:

The child develops feeling of identification from family which in term develops with him maintain of language, way of living values etc.

§  Social Teaching:

From family to school, peers the child marted with social teaching. According to Miller Dolard, this social teaching is based on following four elements.

  • Derive
  • Cue
  • Response
  • Record
  • Perceiving the situation
  • Individual at any age has to change his or her behavior pattern according to situation. This process of perceiving is helpful in acquiring of social ideas.
§  Mutual Behavior and Cooperation:

When an individual comes in contact with other, got influence by Mutual Corporation, the social qualities also develop in the individual. This is another way of developing social qualities and organizing the social personality.

§  Suggestions:

The child also tries to adjust himself to social needs according to the suggestions from others.

Generally these suggestions are received from family, peer group, school and other agencies of socialization.

§  Reward or Punishment:

If acted according to social values and ideals have get record and punishment if act against the interest of society.

Why is socialization important in society?

We have just noted that socialization is how culture is learned, but socialization is also important for another important reason. To illustrate this importance, let’s pretend we find a 6-year-old child who has had almost no human contact since birth. After the child was born, her mother changed her diapers and fed her a minimal diet but otherwise did not interact with her. The child was left alone all day and night for years and never went outside. We now find her at the age of 6. How will her behavior and actions differ from those of the average 6-year-old? Take a moment and write down all the differences you would find.

Theories Of Socialization:

When we are born, we have a genetic makeup and biological traits. However, who we are as human beings–our identity–develops through social interaction.

Psychological Perspectives on Self-Development:

Psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) was one of the most influential modern scientists to put forth a theory about how people develop a sense of self. He divided the maturation process into stages, and posited that people’s self-development is closely linked to their early stages of development. 

Sociological Perspectives on Self-Development:

One of the pioneering contributors to sociological perspectives on self-development was Charles Cooley (1864–1929). He asserted that one’s self understanding is constructed, in part, by our perception of how others view us—a process termed “the looking glass self” (Cooley 1902), which was discussed when we first introduced symbolic interactionism. 

Psychological and Sociological Theories of Socialization:

As you have learned, both psychologists and sociologists have theories about socialization and the influences that make you. The two disciplines differ, however, in that psychological theories tend to focus on internal processes and the mind, while sociologists focus on external influences, interactions, and society.


Definition: The Self Theory emphasizes on the set of perceptions an individual has for himself and the perceptions of the relationships he has with others and the other aspects of life

  1. Self-Image: Self-image means what an individual thinks about himself. Everybody has certain beliefs about themselves, such as who or what they are, these beliefs form the self-image and identity of a person.
  2. Ideal-Self: The ideal-self means, the way an individual would like to be. It is very much different from the self-image, as it shows the ideal position perceived by an individual, whereas the self-image is the reality that an individual perceives.
  3. Looking-Glass-Self: The looking-glass self means, an individual’s perception of how others are perceiving his qualities or feeling about him. Simply, it is the perception of other’s perception, i.e. perceiving what others perceive about yourself and not see what actually you are.
  4. Real-Self: The real-self is what others show you with respect to your self-image. An individual’s self-image is confirmed when others responses to him and shares their beliefs or perception, about what they actually feel about him.

Question No. 3 Discuss in detail the phenomenon of conformity and its related concepts. And also define Obedience. / Write comprehensive notes on Conformity and Social Learning Approach.

Conformity, the process whereby people change their beliefs, attitudes, actions, or perceptions to more closely match those held by groups to which they belong or want to belong or by groups whose approval they desire. Conformity has important social implications and continues to be actively researched.

Example of conformity in sociology:

Some common examples of conformity include: A person going to work dresses in the same style as colleagues in order to fit in. A college student takes drugs because they don’t want to appear ‘boring’ when all their friends are doing it.

The Concepts of Conformity:

Conformity involves the changing of ones attitudes, opinions or behaviors to match those of others. Aronson (1988) defines it ‘as a change in a person’s behavior or opinions as a result of real or imagined pressure from a person or group of people.’ The pressure to act like other people, sometimes despite our true feelings and desires, is a common everyday occurrence. Although the majority of people like to think of themselves as autonomous individuals, they nevertheless tend to conform to the social norms that their groups and societies have evolved.


In human behavior, obedience is a form of social influence in which a person accepts instructions or orders from an authority figure. Obedience differs from compliance, which is behavior influenced by peers, and from conformity, which is behavior intended to match that of the majority. Obedience can be seen as both a sin and a virtue. For example in a situation when one orders a person to kill another innocent person and he or she does this willingly, it is a sin. However, when one orders a person to kill an enemy who will end a lot of innocent lives and he or she does this willingly, it can be deemed a virtue.

Social Learning Approach:

Social learning approach is a perspective that states that people learn within a social context. It is facilitated through concepts such as modeling and observational learning.

According to this approach sex-typed behaviour is seen as a consequence of the rewards and punishments that a child experiences as he or she engages in various behaviours. Social Learning Theory postulates that people can learn by observing others.

For example: we learn table manners by observing our parents at the dinner table.

This approach assumes that a male child will be rewarded for engaging in behaviour characteristics of male children and punishment for doing what girls do and vice versa in the case of girls. Boys are given gun, motorcycle, and car etc, to play with, and girls are given dolls and pottery. Gradually, the child learns to discriminate between appropriate and inappropriate behaviour and then generalizes it.

The social-learning model also esplains a second process of observational learning. It is generally acknowledged that a child learns many things by merely observing the role model (parents or peers) engaging in behaviour. Thus, when the child plays at making bread, her this behaviour is associated with her mother’s feminine behaviour of making bread.

In other words, a person’s behaviour, environment, and personal qualities all reciprocally influence each other. Bandura proposed that the modeling process involves several steps:

1.       Attention – in order for an individual to learn something, they must pay attention to the features of the modeled behaviour.

2.       Retention – humans need to be able to remember details of the behaviour in order to learn and later reproduce the behaviour.

3.       Reproduction – in reproducing a behavior, an individual must organize his or her responses in accordance with the model behavior. This ability can improve with practice.

4.       Motivation – there must be an incentive or motivation driving the individual’s reproduction of the behaviour. Even if all of the above factors are present, the person will not engage in the behaviour without motivation.

Question No. 4 Define and explain the term “attitude”./ Define the term “attitude”? Also elaborate major theories that deal with attitude change. “/ Explain the concept of attitude and factors responsible for its change. Support/ What are the various elements responsible for change in the attitude? Explain With examples.

An attitude refers to a set of emotions, beliefs, and behaviors toward a particular object, person, thing, or event. Attitudes are often the result of experience or upbringing. They can have a powerful influence over behavior and affect how people act in various situations. While attitudes are durable, they can also change.

Three Components / Elements of Attitude:

  • Cognitive Component: Your thoughts and beliefs about the subject.  For example, if you have learned previously that Honda cars give more than 20 km/litre mileage on petrol – that can create a positive attitude towards the brand.
  • Affective Component: How the object, person, issue, or event makes you feel.  For example, if owning a Honda car gives you pleasure and prestige that will create a positive attitude about the brand.

Behavioral Component: How attitude influences your behavior. For example, if you have previously owned or driven Honda cars and felt comfortable driving the same, that will create a positive attitude towards the brand. People hate cognitive dissonance, and hence try to align the present behavior with past behavior as well.

Attitude Change:

Attitude change occurs anytime an attitude is modified. Thus, change occurs when a person goes from being positive to negative, from slightly positive to very positive, or from having no attitude to having one. Because of the functional value of attitudes, the processes that change them have been a major focus throughout the history of social psychology.

Theories of Attitude Change:

Several attitude change categorization schemes have been proposed in the literature (Eagly & Chaiken, 1993; O’Keefe, 1990), and most are similar. For this discussion, attitude theories have been organized into four categories (see 11.6):

  • Consistency theories
  • Learning theories
  • Social judgment theories
  • Functional theories

The study of attitudes has been approached with varying emphases and methods during most of this century. Prior to World War II, the emphasis was on definition issues and attitude measurement. 

Consistency Theories:

The basic assumption of these theories is the need of the individual for consistency. There must be consistency between attitudes, between behaviors, and among attitudes and behaviors. A lack of consistency causes discomfort so that an individual attempts to ease the tension by adjusting attitudes or behaviors in order to once again achieve balance or consistency. One of the earliest consistency theories was balance theory (Himmelfarb & Eagly, 1974; Kiesler, Collins & Miller, 1969; O’Keefe, 1990).

Early Learning Theories:

This section might more accurately be called behavioral theories of attitude change. These theories were also developed during the 1950s and 1960s. During this time, learning theories reflected behavioral psychology (see 2.2). A major commonality of these theories was their emphasis on the stimulus characteristics of the communication situation.

Social Judgment Theory:

Social judgment theory focuses on how people’s prior attitudes distort their perceptions of the positions advocated in persuasive messages, and how such perceptions mediate persuasion. In general terms, the theory assumes that a person’s own attitudes serve as a judgmental standard and anchor that influences where along a continuum a persuader’s advocated position is perceived to lie (Sherif & Hovland, 1961). Social judgment theory- is an attempt to apply the principles of judgment to the study of attitude change.

Functional Theories:

A fundamental question about attitudes concerns their purpose: That is, what functions do attitudes serve? Understanding the purposes of attitudes is the identifying characteristic of functional theories. Attitudes serve different functions for different individuals or for the same individual in different settings. The reasons for attitude changes are individualized and related to personal functions of attitudes.

The most important factors of social change are as under:

1. Physical Environment:

Certain geographic changes sometimes produce great social change. Climate, storms, social erosion, earthquakes, floods, droughts etc., definitely affect social life and induce social change. Human life is closely bound up with the geographical conditions of the earth.

2. Demographic (biological) Factor:

Broadly speaking, demography is concerned with the size and structure of human population. The social structure of a society is closely related with the changes in the size, composition and distri­bution of population. The size of the population is based mainly upon three factors birth rate, death rate and migration (immigration and emigration).

3. Cultural Factor:

It is an established fact that there is an intimate connection between our beliefs and social institutions, our values and social relationships. Values, beliefs, ideas, institutions are the basic elements of a culture. Certainly, all cultural changes involve social change.

4. Ideational Factor:

Among the cultural factors affecting social change in modern times, the development of science and secularization of thought have contributed a lot to the development of the critical and innovative character of the modern outlook. We no longer follow many customs or habits merely because they have the age-old authority of tradition. 

5. Economic Factor:

Of economic influences, the most far-reaching is the impact of industrialization. It has revolutionized the whole way of life, institutions, organizations and community life. In traditional production systems, levels of production were fairly static since they were geared to habitual, customary needs.

6. Political Factor:

State is the most powerful organization which regulates the social relationships. It has the power to legislate new laws, repeal old ones to bring social change in the society.

Question No. 5 Discuss different types of collective behavior in light of theoretical approaches./         Discuss different types of collective behavior. Also narrate theoretical approaches to the study of collective behavior.

Collective behavior is any group behavior that is not mandated or regulated by an institution. There are three primary forms of collective behavior: the crowd, the mass, and the public. It takes a fairly large number of people in close proximity to form a crowd (Lofland 1993).

Examples of collective behavior may include a crowd doing the wave at a football game, a group of people forming around a street preacher, or even widespread interest in a new fad or product, like silly bands.

Importance of collective behavior:

Collective behavior provides a framework for understanding how the actions and properties of groups emerge from the way individuals generate and share information.


Types of Collective Behaviour:

Collective behavior is a term sociologists use to refer to a miscellaneous set of behaviors in which large numbers of people engage. More specifically, collective behavior refers to relatively spontaneous and relatively unstructured behavior by large numbers of individuals acting with or being influenced by other individuals.

The Types of collective behavior are:



A crowd is a large number of people who gather together with a common short-term or long-term purpose. Sociologist Herbert Blumer (1969) developed a popular typology of crowds based on their purpose and dynamics. The four types he distinguished are casual crowds, conventional crowds, expressive crowds, and acting crowds. A fifth type, protest crowds, has also been distinguished by other scholars.


A riot is a relatively spontaneous outburst of violence by a large group of people. The term riot sounds very negative, and some scholars have used terms like urban revolt or urban uprising to refer to the riots that many U.S. cities experienced during the 1960s. However, most collective behavior scholars continue to use the term riot without necessarily implying anything bad or good about this form of collective behavior, and we use riot here in that same spirit.

Social Movements

A social movement is an organized effort by a large number of people to bring about or impede social, political, economic, or cultural change. We have much more to say about social movements later in this chapter, but for now simply identify them as an important form of collective behavior that plays a key role in social change.

 Disaster Behavior

A disaster is an accident or natural catastrophe that causes many deaths and much property destruction. Hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, fires, and floods are the most common natural disasters, while the sinking of the Titanic and Other disasters, such as hurricanes and earthquakes, affect a much larger geographical area and number of people and thus have far-reaching consequences.

Fads and Crazes

Fads and crazes make up the second category of beliefs and perceptions that are considered to be collective behavior. A fad is a rather insignificant activity or product that is popular for a relatively short time, while a craze is a temporary activity that attracts the obsessive enthusiasm of a relatively small group of people (Goode, 1992).

Question No. 6 Define state and its elements.. Define and discuss the Concept of “State” by elaborating its elements./ Discuss in detail three branches of government in a modern state with a brief account on their merits and demerits./ Discuss the necessity of state? Explain in detail with examples.

According to one definition, a state is a community formed by people and exercising permanent power within a specified territory. As a community of persons, permanently occupying a definite territory, legally independent of external control, and possessing an organized government which create and administrates law over all persons and group within its jurisdiction is ‘State’.

Essential Elements/Necessity of


The State Must, Therefore, Possess the Essential Elements of State are-

1. Population:

Two conclusions flow from the discussion on the meaning and nature of the state:

(I) that the State is a human institution the product of man’s gregarious nature and the result of necessities of human life, and

(2) Population and land are the starting point of any study of man in his organized groups. It is the people who make the State; without them, there can be none. But the population must be large enough to make a State and sustain it.

2. Territory.

A territory is an area of land, sea, or space, particularly belonging or connected to a country, person, there is no State without its proper territory, large or small, and no territory that is not part of some State, large or small. Land, water, and airspace within the defined territorial area comprise the territory of the State.  I am a citizen of Pakistan because I was born there or because my father was born there. As in population, so in territory, no limit can be laid down. Small states and large ones exist side by side.

3. Government.

The purpose of living together cannot be realized unless they are properly organized and accept certain rules of conduct. The agency created to enforce such rules of conduct and to ensure obedience is called government. Government is the focus of the common purpose of the people occupying a definite territory. Without government, the people will be just a babel of tongues with no cohesion and means of collective action.

4. Sovereignty.

The sovereignty of the State is its most essential and distinguishable feature. As people inhabiting a definite portion of territory and having a government do not constitute a state. They must be internally supreme and free from external control. The sovereignty of the State has two aspects, internal sovereignty, and external sovereignty. Internal sovereignty is the State’s monopoly of authority inside its boundaries.

  • Branches of government:

All State Governments are modeled after the Federal Government and consist of three branches:

Viewing the three branches of government does assist in understanding how the government is structured.

  1. Executive: The executive is the branch of government responsible for the overall governance of a state. In countries which base their political system on the separation of powers, the executive branch of government is responsible for enforcing and executing laws made by the legislative branch of government.
  • Legislative: The legislative branch of government is responsible for enacting the

Laws of the state and appropriating the money necessary to operate the government.

  •  Judicial: Judiciary, branch of government whose task is the authoritative adjudication of controversies over the application of laws in specific situations.

Conflicts brought before the judiciary are embodied in cases involving litigants, who may be individuals, groups, legal entities (e.g., corporations), or governments and their agencies.

There is a bicameral Parliament with the National Assembly as a Lower house and the Senate as an upper house. The most influential officials in the Government of Pakistan are considered to be the Federal Secretaries, who are the highest ranking bureaucrats in the country and run cabinet-level ministries and divisions.

Question No. 7 Explain function, power and organization of judiciary./ Discuss various forms of government. / Make a comparison between Parliamentary and Presidential form of Governments./ Discuss the salient feature of federal form of Government.

A small group of persons holding simultaneously the principal political executive offices of a nation or other political unit and being responsible for the direction and supervision of public affairs.

Parliamentary Form vs Presidential Form:


• Form of government found in most countries

• The only votes that people vote are for members of parliament

• The executive is chosen and set up by parliament

The roles of head of state and head of government often are held by different people in a parliamentary system. For example, a country might have a prime minister who acts as its head of government and a monarch who acts as its head of state. Some countries that have a parliamentary system also have a president instead of a monarch, who acts as the head of state. A country that has both a prime minister and a president is sometimes said to have a semi-presidential system of government, although it is more closely related to a parliamentary system because of the power held by the legislature and prime minister in such a system.


In a presidential system, the President is the big „guy“. – The President, who is the chief executive as well as the symbolic head of government, is chosen by a separate election from that of the legislature.

In a presidential system, the president is the head of government and the head of state. As the head of government, he or she oversees the operations of the government and fulfills certain duties, such as appointing officials and advisers to help run the government, signing or vetoing laws passed by the legislature and establishing an annual budget. A president’s duties as head of state include tasks such as making speeches, representing the country at public events, hosting or visiting diplomats from other countries, and presenting prestigious national awards.

What is a federal system government?

Federalism and the federal system define the basic structure of American government. There were many disagreements at the Constitutional Convention. Many delegates feared a national government that was too strong and many delegates feared that states’ rights would merely continue the weak form of government under the Articles. The Constitution created a federal system of government (federalism) as a compromise. Under federalism, power is shared and divided between national and state governments.

Salient feature of federal form of Government:

  • There are two or more levels (or tiers) of government. Different tiers of government govern the same citizens, but each tier has its own jurisdiction in specific matters of legislation, taxation and administration.
  • The jurisdictions of the respective levels or tiers of government are specified in the constitution.
  • The fundamental provisions of the constitution cannot be unilaterally changed by one level of government. Such changes require the consent of both the levels of government.
  •  Courts have the power to interpret the constitution and the powers of different levels of government.
  • Sources of revenue for each level of government are clearly specified to ensure its financial autonomy.

Differentiate between Unitary Form of Government and Federal Form of Government:

A constitution can be either unitary or federal. A unitary system is governed constitutionally as one single unit, with one constitutionally created legislature. But in the federal constitution, there is a division of powers between the federal and the state governments. Here are some differences between the federal government and the unitary government.

Federal governmentUnitary government
The system has multiple hierarchy levels, with both the central authority and the states (or provinces) both being sovereign.There is no hierarchy of sovereign powers.
The central or national rules override the state rules.States have no authority to pass their own laws, and the central or national government can order the states to do anything.
There is a balance between the levels of government.The federal government has a huge percentage of power. Examples include Japan and Saudi Arabia.
Power and responsibilities are shared between national and local levels.Power is placed in one central governing system

Question No. 8 Narrate the salient features of 1973 Constitution of Pakistan? / Give an overview of the Islamic provisions of the 1973 Constitution.

“Set of Rules & Regulations on which a state runs is called Constitution”.

Constitution of Pakistan 1973: The constitution of Pakistan consists of 280 Articles & 7 schedules.

Salient Features of 1973 Constitution of Pakistan:

The National Assembly of Pakistan unanimously approved the Constitution of 1973 on April 10, 1973. The salient features of 1973 Constitution of Pakistan are as under:

Written Constitution:

Like the Constitution of the United States of America but unlike the Constitution of the United Kingdom, the Constitution of 1973 is a written document. There are 280 articles and 7 schedules of the Constitution.

Federal Constitution: The Constitution of 1973 is Federal Constitution. It establishes a central government and the governments of the federating units, namely, the province of Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Baluchistan.

Parliamentary form of Government:

Like the Constitution of 1956 but unlike the Constitution of 1962, the Constitution of 1973, provides Pakistan with a parliamentary form of government. In a parliamentary form of government, maximum powers are vested in the elected parliament and the Prime Minister, being head of government has many more powers than the head of State (President).

Bicameral Legislature:

The Constitution of 1973 provides for the establishment of a bicameral legislature in Pakistan. Pakistani Parliament consists of two houses, namely, National Assembly, the lower house, and the Senate, the upper house.

Rigid Constitution:

The Constitution of 1973 is a rigid constitution in the sense that it requires a Two-third majority of the parliament (National Assembly and Senate) for amendment in it.

Fundamental Rights:

The 1973 Constitution guarantees fundamental rights to the citizens of Pakistan. Some of these areas are:

  • Equality of all citizens before the law.
  • Security of persons and of their properties and other belongings.
  • Right to acquire, hold or dispose of the property in any part of Pakistan.
  • Freedom of speech
  • Freedom of expression

National language:

The Constitution of 1973 provides for Urdu as the national language of Pakistan. Regional languages have also been provided full protection by the Constitution.

Islamic Provisions of the Constitution of 1973:

The following are the Islamic provisions of the Constitution of 1973.

  • The Constitution of 1973 also names the country the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
  • Islam is the State Religion of Pakistan.
  • Sovereignty belongs to Allah Almighty.
  • Only Muslims could become the President and Prime Minister of Pakistan.
  • Islamic way of life.
  • Islamization of laws.

Direct Election System:

The direct Election System is another salient feature of 1973 Constitution of Pakistan. The members of the National Assembly and Provincial Assembly are selected through Direct Election.


It is concluded that The National Assembly approved the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan on April 10, 1973, and proclaimed it on August 14, 1973. Some salient features of 1973 Constitution of Pakistan are – written, federal, parliamentary, bicameral, rigid, etc.

Question No. 9 Define pressure group. Discuss various kinds of pressure groups and their functions.

A pressure group is an organized group of people who are trying to persuade a government or other authority to do something, for example to change a law. These groups include trade unions, ethnic associations.

Pressure groups are also known as ‘interest groups’, ‘lobby groups’ and ‘protest groups’ this is because not a lot of people look at the name pressure groups fondly.

Types of Pressure Groups:

Pressure groups can be varied, such as student association, educational institutions, labor unions, etc. Almond and Powell have discussed in detail the classification of pressure groups in the book Comparative Politics. These two modern state scientists have divided interest groups into four classes.

1. Associational Groups:

Associational pressure groups are an expert group to present their self-interest claims. These are formally organized in the form of registered bodies having their own constitution or rules, finances, records, addresses of the office bearers and others like this. Such groups are formed for articulation of interest.

2. Non-Associational Groups:

Non-Associational groups that are racial, ethnic, class, linguistic, etc. are seen. Dignity and class-based groups are also part of the non-associational pressure group. Not all of these groups are properly organized.

3. Institutional Groups:

This group is made up of people from any profession. Such a group may be intent for the interests of its own members or any other group. These institutional forces play a significant role in the political system of the country. Such groups are seen in the legislatures, political parties, bureaucracy, and so on.

4. Anomic Groups:

Such pressure groups usually originate from a particular event. Pressure groups of this kind naturally express their dissatisfaction with their smoky accusations and this group creates pressure on the country’s political system through protests, riots, assassinations, etc.


  • Pressure groups influence government policies or decisions.
  • Pressure groups acts as watch dog on the government.
  • Pressure group main aim is to protect the interest of their members.
  • Pressure groups promote economic activities through their efforts to realize and
  • Promote specific economic interests of their members.
  • Pressure groups help to foster the achievement of democracy.
  • Pressure groups help to guide government in the formulation of policies.

Question No. 10 Elaborate the Election Process and Political parties with reference to Pakistani Setting.

The head of government, the Prime Minister, is elected by the majority members of the National Assembly and the head of state (and figurehead), the President, is elected by the Electoral College, which consists of both houses of Parliament together with the four provincial assemblies.

It has been 75 years of Pakistan’s emergence as an independent state on the world map. The political setup that it inherited from the British in 1947 had various issues at first. One of the major issues was to establish a stable political set-up that involved modelling of an electoral process.

The constitution of Pakistan 1973 preserves and explains the electoral system of Pakistan. Article 51 of the constitution explains number of seats in the national assembly and candidates’ requirements, while Part VIII with the title “Elections” is about elections law – Election Day, roll, responsibilities of authorities, mode of conduct, etc.

Pakistan has a parliamentary system in which the legislature is elected directly by public voting through secret ballot in constituencies. In the 2013 general elections, Pakistan’s Muslim League – Nawaz (PMLN)  established the government receiving 32.77% of total votes. Similarly in 2018, Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) won the elections and formed the government by receiving the majority of votes i.e., 31.82%. In both cases, over half of the country’s population did not vote for these parties yet they formed governments based on majority. The system promotes the general will, and not will of all voters.


Major laws for the conduct of elections to the National and Provincial Assemblies are the Representation of the People Act, 1976 and the Representation of the People (Conduct of Election) Rules, 1977.

Election to the Senate (Upper House) is held according to the relevant legal provisions contained in the Senate (Election) Act, 1975, the Senate (Members from Federal Capital) Order, 1985 and 1988 and the Senate (Election) Rules, 1975.

The Electoral Rolls Act, 1974 and the Electoral Rolls Rules, 1974 deal with preparation, annual revision, amendment and maintenance of the lists of voters.

The constituencies of the National and Provincial Assemblies are demarcated in accordance with the provisions of the Delimitation of Constituencies Act, 1974.

The procedure for election to the office of the President is contained in the Second Schedule to the Constitution read with the Presidential Election Rules, 1988.

Political parties:

A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country’s elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and parties may promote specific ideological or policy goals.

Pakistan has long had a turbulent relationship with democracy. Since its independence in August 1947, the country has experienced four military coups, ratified three constitutions, experimented with both presidential and parliamentary forms of government.

What do political parties do?

Political parties in the United States do different things. Political parties have five main functions. Recruiting candidates for public office is one of the most important functions that political parties have. An important goal of political parties is to gain control of the government, and for this, parties must work to recruit candidates for all elected positions. For example, if a state had a governorship, each political party would try to find a person they could support to run for the position.

Political parties are also actively trying to gather volunteers to help with voter registration as well as the organization and conduct of voting on Election Day. We hope that the more people who get involved in helping with the election, the more interest there will be in the outcome, which should increase voter turnout. The ultimate goal is to get the person the party supports to win the election.

List of Top Political parties in Pakistan:

The most well-known political parties in Pakistan are:

·         PML (N)

·         PTI

·         PPP

·         PML (Q)

·         Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan

·         ANP

·         MQM

·         JUI (F)

Question No. 11 Define social norms. Also explain importance of social norms in regulating Social behaviors./ Define social influence and also discuss the origin of social norms.

Social norms are the perceived informal, mostly unwritten, rules that define acceptable and appropriate actions. Within a given group or community, thus guiding human. Behavior.

Importance Of Social Norms:

Social Norms are the somewhat unwritten rules about how to act or how to behave. They provide us with an expected idea of how to behave in a particular social group or culture. They are the accepted standards of behaviors in particular groups, which may range from family, to friends, schoolmates, workmates, and other citizens. Because of these norms and their underlying implication, the people who do not follow them are shunned or ignored. Therefore, sociologists have given the definition, “Social norms are rules developed by a group of people that specify how people must, should, may, should not, and must not behave in various situations.”

  • Social norms are important to understand a wide array of social behaviors.
  • We review theories aimed to explain when and why people follow norms.
  • We distinguish explanations based on learning and internalization, social image and self-image, and conditional preferences.
  • Finally, we highlight a method to elicit norms and the individual propensity to follow them.

What is social influence?

Any change in an individual’s thoughts, feelings, or behaviors caused by other people, who may be actually present or whose presence is imagined, expected, or only implied.

Why Social influence important?

Social influence has an effect on youth when adolescents are exposed to the behaviors and norms of others (i.e., mere exposure) and observe the positive outcomes others receive from such behaviors (i.e., vicarious learning). Adolescents then internalize such social norms and model the behaviors in future instances.

Two major forms of social influence:

Obedience and conformity are two kinds of social influences when people change attitude or behavior under the influence of the views of others. The term “obedience” refers to direct requests from an authority figure to one or more persons.

Question No. 12 What are the sources and elements that influence “Self”? Also explain the various aspects of self.

In the psychology of self, one’s self-concept (also called self-constructionself-identityself-perspective or self-structure) is a collection of beliefs about oneself. Generally, self-concept embodies the answer to the question “Who am I?”.


Elements of Self-Concept: Carl Rogers, one of the founders of humanistic psychology, suggested that self-concept includes three elements:


Self-image is the way we see ourselves. Self-image includes what we know about ourselves physically (e.g. brown hair, blue eyes, tall), our social roles (e.g. wife, brother, gardener), and our personality traits (e.g. outgoing, serious, kind).Self-image doesn’t always match reality.


Self-esteem is the value we place upon ourselves. Individual levels of self-esteem are dependent on the way we evaluate ourselves. Those evaluations incorporate our personal comparisons to others as well as others’ responses to us.

Ideal Self:

The ideal self is the self we would like to be. There’s often a difference between one’s self-image and one’s ideal self. This incongruity can negatively impact one’s self-esteem.

According to Carl Rogers, self-image and ideal self can be congruent or incongruent. Congruence between the self-image and ideal self means that there is a fair amount of overlap between the two.

Various aspects of self with examples:

When I know ‘who I am’, I am in a better place to look after myself. The book defines self-care as a holistic concept that explores how the five aspects of one’s self are interwoven: emotional, spiritual, social, intellectual and physical. Perhaps like me, you had not previously thought about caring for the emotional, social or intellectual aspects as integral components of self-care.

Emotional self-care: requires us to name and acknowledge feelings and responsibly handle them, because to minimize or deny what we feel is a distortion of what it means to be image-bearers of our personal God.

Emotional differentiation: is an important aspect of emotional self-care. It is the capacity to hear and understand with other’s frustrations, while not necessarily agreeing with their analysis or taking attacks personally.

Spiritual self-care: is synonymous with spiritual formation: the ongoing process of maturing as a Christian, both personally and interpersonally. This takes consistent time and effort.

Social and intellectual self-care: need to be regulated as much as the physical. Relationships are vital to health. Building relationships for social self-care requires discernment, while becoming a lifelong learner is essential for all people and especially for teachers!

Physical self-care, eating a nutritious diet, having regular meals and limiting junk food, doing regular exercise, getting enough sleep and taking holidays are not new ideas, however, for many busy people they are only ideas.

Question No. 13 Define Democracy. Also explain the kinds, characteristics and conditions for Democracy.

Democracy is a system of government in which laws, policies, leadership, and major undertakings of a state or other polity are directly or indirectly decided by the “people,” a group historically constituted by only a minority of the population.

Kinds of democracy:

Direct democracy:

In a direct democracy, such as ancient Athens, all citizens (only adult males who had completed their military training; women, slaves and plebs were not citizens) are invited to participate in all political decisions. This form of democracy is no longer practiced. In this form of democracy citizens are continuously involved in the exercise of power and decision is by majority rule.

Representative democracy:

In a representative democracy, representatives are elected by the people and entrusted to carry out the business of governance. Australia is a representative democracy.

Constitutional democracy:

In a constitutional democracy a constitution outlines who will represent the people and how. Australia is also a constitutional democracy.

Monitory democracy:

Political scientist John Keane suggests that a new form of democracy is evolving in which government is constantly monitored in its exercise of power by a vast array of public and private agencies, commissions and regulatory mechanisms. 

The Characteristics of democracy are:

1)             Elected representative: The people among themselves elect representatives who would govern them.

2)             Civil liberties: Civil liberties such as freedom of speech, expression, etc are provided to the people.

3)             Independent judiciary: The judiciary is free from the control of the executive and hence results in a more democratic resolution of disputes.

4)             Organized opposition party: An organized opposition party is an essential part of the democracy as it keeps a check on the government.

5)             Rule of law: Rule of law prevails in a democracy and no one is above the law. The law is supreme and all citizens are equal in the eyes of the law.

Ø  Conditions for the Success of Democracy:

In-fact, the success of Democracy can be possible only when it works in such conditions as are essential for its successful working.

It can be successful only when following conditions are secured:

1. Democratic Society:

A democratic society is essential for the success of a democratic government. A democratic society is one which willingly accepts the values of liberty and equality. 

2. Economic Equality:

Economic equality in society can guarantee the success of democracy. Without economic democracy, political democracy remains true only on papers. People cannot be fed on votes, they need foods.

3. Educated and Enlightened Citizenship:

Democracy is a system which involves a continuous and active involvement of the people in the political process. Without popular and effective political participation, no democracy can be successful. 

4. Full respect for Fundamental Rights and Freedoms:

Democracy is regarded as the best form of government because it grants and guarantees fundamental human rights and freedoms to all its people. For this purpose it is essential for a democracy to take all steps which are necessary for granting, preserving and protecting the rights the people.

5. Freedom of Press:

Without freedom of press, we cannot even imagine the working of a democratic government. Public opinion has to be the basis of all policies and decisions of a democratic government. The government must keep a continuous track of the demands of public opinion.

6. Mature Leadership:

The people are sovereign but they have to be led by their leaders and only then can they fruitfully exercise their power. In a democracy the leaders are in reality the policy-makers and the decision-makers. They can perform these tasks only when they are able, mature, honest and dedicated.

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