I wish to express appreciation and gratitude to my teachers who put the high of ideas in my mind, to my family who put forth helping hand at every step of my life. Also I take this opportunity to convey my special thanks to the Madam Sadia Pashaa, Dr. Asad Munir and Dr. Saqib Riaz Chairman of department Mass communication AIOU accommodating students like me to gain practical knowledge which surely help them in adjusting in the practical filed easily and can in better way play their part in the development of the country. Finally, I want to acknowledge the grandeur of God Almighty who strengthen me at every step and provided all mentored support to accomplish the task.

With thanks for all.


 I Feel great pleasure and am proud of being the student of the Mass Comm Dept AIOU Islamabad. I also feel proud because the institution not only provides theoretical knowledge but also gives the practical exposure to the student. I have gained a lot of knowledge and practical exposure while working on this report, which is the sole purpose of this report.

The internship programme completion and submission of research report is an integral part of Master Degree in Mass Communication for AIOU. The purpose of the training is to provide the student with the practical experience of Pakhtunkhwa Radio FM 92.6 its functions and application of financial strategies in general. I confess that a few weeks time is not sufficient to grasp the scope of study therefore the report under sight is just a soup shot of the dept not the work of it.

  Radio Pakistan

Radio Pakistan is the official national radio service of Pakistan, and it has been serving the country since 1947 when Pakistan gained independence. It is a state-owned and government-operated broadcasting organization that provides radio programs in various languages across the country. The main objective of Radio Pakistan is to inform, educate, and entertain the public while promoting national integration, cultural heritage, and social values.

  1. Broadcasting: Radio Pakistan operates a network of radio stations that cover the entire country. It broadcasts a variety of programs, including news, current affairs, music, drama, educational content, and cultural shows. The programs are available in different languages, catering to the diverse linguistic and cultural communities of Pakistan.
  2. News and Information: Radio Pakistan serves as a reliable source of news and information for the public. It keeps the audience updated with the latest happenings in the country and around the world, fostering awareness and knowledge.
  3. Education: The radio station plays a vital role in providing educational content to the masses. It airs programs that focus on various subjects like science, history, literature, and health, contributing to the intellectual development of the society.
  4. Cultural Promotion: Radio Pakistan actively promotes Pakistani culture and traditions. It broadcasts traditional music, folk songs, and regional programs, preserving and celebrating the rich cultural heritage of the country.
  5. Entertainment: Radio Pakistan offers a diverse range of entertainment programs to its listeners. These include music shows, radio dramas, comedy, and interactive programs, which provide recreational value and bring joy to the lives of the listeners.
  6. Public Service Announcements: Radio Pakistan serves as a platform for public service announcements (PSAs). These announcements inform the public about important issues, health campaigns, social initiatives, and government policies, fostering a sense of civic responsibility among the citizens.
  • Disaster Management: During emergencies and natural disasters, Radio Pakistan plays a crucial role in disseminating critical information to the public. It helps in coordinating relief efforts and guiding people to safety.

How Radio Pakistan can help society:


  1. Information Dissemination: Radio Pakistan plays a vital role in providing timely and accurate information to the masses. It helps raise awareness about important issues, educates people on various matters, and keeps them informed about national and international events.
  2. Education and Awareness: The radio station’s educational programs contribute to the spread of knowledge and awareness among people who may have limited access to formal education.
  3. Cultural Preservation: By promoting Pakistani culture and traditions, Radio Pakistan helps preserve the nation’s identity and heritage, fostering a sense of pride and unity among the people.
  4. Social Cohesion: Radio Pakistan broadcasts content in various languages, which helps bridge the communication gap among different linguistic communities. It plays a significant role in promoting national integration and social cohesion.
  5. Entertainment and Stress Relief: The entertainment programs on Radio Pakistan provide an escape from daily stresses and anxieties. They offer a means of relaxation and enjoyment, contributing to the overall well-being of the society.
  6. Emergency Communication: During disasters or emergencies, Radio Pakistan acts as a lifeline for communication, helping authorities disseminate vital information and instructions to the affected population.

Overall, Radio Pakistan serves as a powerful medium to connect with the masses, promoting education, cultural values, and social cohesion while keeping the public informed and entertained.

Introductions of Pakhtunkhwa Radio FM 92.6 MHz Mardan

Welcome to Pakhtunkhwa Radio FM 92.6 MHz Mardan! This radio station is a vibrant and influential part of the media landscape in the Mardan district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan. With its frequency set at 92.6 MHz, Pakhtunkhwa Radio brings you a diverse range of programs that cater to the interests and needs of the local community.

As the name suggests, Pakhtunkhwa Radio embraces and celebrates the rich cultural heritage and traditions of the Pakhtun people. The station is dedicated to promoting Pakhtun culture, language, and music, while also facilitating a platform for informed discussions on various social, political, and cultural issues relevant to the region.

Pakhtunkhwa Radio FM 92.6 MHz Mardan is more than just a radio station; it is a community hub, a source of information, education, and entertainment for the residents of Mardan and the surrounding areas. From engaging talk shows that delve into the pressing matters of the day to the melodious tunes of traditional and contemporary Pakhtun music, this radio station offers an immersive and interactive experience for its listeners.

In addition to its entertainment value, Pakhtunkhwa Radio takes its role as a responsible media outlet seriously. It provides reliable news updates and current affairs programs, keeping the audience well-informed about local, national, and international events.

Furthermore, the radio station actively engages with the community by broadcasting public service announcements, promoting social initiatives, and supporting local events. Whether it’s spreading awareness about health campaigns, disaster management, or community development projects, Pakhtunkhwa Radio aims to be a constructive force for positive change in the region.

Tune in to Pakhtunkhwa Radio FM 92.6 MHz Mardan and join the dynamic journey of celebrating Pakhtun culture, fostering knowledge, and strengthening the sense of unity and identity among the people of Mardan.Pakhtunkhwa Radio 92.6 ad Duration

15 seconds, 30 seconds, 60 seconds

 List Of Pbc Stations

The Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) operates several radio stations in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly known as Pakhtunkhwa). These stations cover various cities and regions within the province. However, please note that there might have been changes or additions to the list since then. Here is a list of some PBC stations in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa:


  • PBC Radio Station Peshawar (AM 1170 kHz)
    • FM 101 Peshawar (FM 101.0 MHz)


  • FM 93 Abbottabad (FM 93.0 MHz)


  • FM 94 Swat (FM 94.0 MHz)


  • FM 93 Bannu (FM 93.0 MHz)


  • FM 93 Kohat (FM 93.0 MHz)


  • FM 93 Mardan (FM 93.0 MHz)


  • FM 95 Chitral (FM 95.0 MHz)

Dera Ismail Khan (DI Khan):

  • FM 93 DI Khan (FM 93.0 MHz)

The frequencies listed above are subject to change or may vary slightly. Additionally, there might be other smaller or community radio stations operated by PBC or private entities in different cities and towns within Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

Objectives of Pakhtunkhwa Radio FM 92.6 MHz Mardan

The main objectives of Pakhtunkhwa Radio FM 92.6 MHz Mardan are to serve the community of Mardan and its surrounding areas by providing informative, educational, and entertaining content that is relevant to the local audience. These objectives are in line with the broader goals of community radio stations and reflect their commitment to promoting social development and cultural preservation. Some of the key objectives include:

  1. Cultural Promotion: Pakhtunkhwa Radio aims to celebrate and preserve the rich cultural heritage of the Pakhtun community. Through its programs, it promotes traditional Pakhtun music, arts, literature, and folk traditions, contributing to the preservation of the region’s cultural identity.
  2. Language Preservation: The radio station emphasizes the use and promotion of the Pakhto language (Pashto), which is the native language of the majority of the local population. By broadcasting in Pakhto, the station helps preserve and promote the language among the younger generations.
  3. Local News and Information: One of the primary objectives of Pakhtunkhwa Radio is to keep the community informed about local news, events, and developments. The station provides timely and accurate news updates and covers issues that are relevant to the daily lives of the people in Mardan.
  4. Education and Awareness: The radio station offers educational content to its listeners. It airs programs that focus on various educational topics, health and hygiene, social issues, and other subjects that contribute to the intellectual and personal development of the community.
  5. Social Development: Pakhtunkhwa Radio is committed to being a platform for promoting social development in the region. It raises awareness about important social issues, supports community initiatives, and collaborates with local organizations to address pressing concerns.
  • Entertainment and Recreation: The radio station provides entertainment and recreational programs to its listeners. This includes music shows, drama, storytelling, and other forms of entertainment that bring joy and relaxation to the audience.
  • Community Engagement: Pakhtunkhwa Radio actively engages with the local community. It encourages community participation through interactive programs, discussions, and interviews. The station also collaborates with local organizations and individuals to amplify their voices and address community needs.
  • Preservation of Local Traditions: The radio station plays a role in preserving and promoting traditional customs, rituals, and art forms that are part of the local culture. It provides a platform for local artists, musicians, and storytellers to showcase their talents.

Overall, Pakhtunkhwa Radio FM 92.6 MHz Mardan aims to be a valuable resource for the community, reflecting the values, aspirations, and interests of the people it serves. By fulfilling these objectives, the station contributes to the social, cultural, and educational development of Mardan and its neighboring areas.


Initially, Pakhtunkhwa Radio FM 92.6 MHz Mardan was established on 18 May 2009 as a FATA (CBP) Capacity Building Project during the crises in Pakistan especially Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The main target was to address the issue of extremism and terrorism through the frequency of Radio in Swat, Bajaur, Mardan, Swabi, Malakand, Buner etc. The name proposed for this purpose was Radio AMN. During the initial days , there was no proper building for this radio station that’s why it started its transmission with the collaboration of another private radio working in Mardan at that time. This Radio started its programs on 4:00 pm to 5:00pm from Radio Buraq Mardan, which had duration of one hour time, which was dedicated to Radio AMAN by Radio Buraq. Meanwhile, the under construction building completed on 29 November 2009 and Radio AMAN has regularly started its programs. The on Air time was Six-hour daily. The main theme of its programs was comprised on messages emphasizing on peace, love & brotherhood.

The Radio AMAN had signed an MOU/agreement with provincial Information Department. According to the MOU/agreement, FATA CBP (Radio AMAN) will run the station for a span of one year and after the completion of one year the station will be handed over to provincial Information Department, later on the time had been further extended for Two-month.

On 30 July 2010, the Station was handed over to the Information Department and Mr. Shams-ul-Haq, Assistant Director Regional Information Office Mardan was given the charge of Station Manager. The Information Department then changed the name of Radio AMN to Pakhtunkhwa Radio Mardan. The On Air time was set for 11 hours transmission. The provincial Information Department had passed its first budget and as well as several essential posts had been advertised to run the station, the existing staffs including Presenters have been adjusted.


Public broadcasting

  1. “Public service broadcasting” redirects here. For the English musical duo, see Public Service Broadcasting (band). For the American television network, see PBS.
  2. Public broadcasting involves radio, television and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is public service. In many countries of the world, funding comes from governments, especially via annual fees charged on receivers. In the United States, public broadcasters may receive some funding from both federal and state sources, but generally most   of   their   financial   support   comes    from    underwriting    by    foundations  and businesses (ranging from small shops to corporations), along with audience contributions via pledge drives. The great majority operate as private not-for-profit corporations
  3. Public broadcasting may be nationally or locally operated, depending on the country and the station. In some countries a single organization runs public broadcasting. Other countries have multiple public-broadcasting organizations operating regionally or in different languages. Historically, public broadcasting was once the dominant or only  form of broadcasting in many countries (with the notable exception of the  United  States). Commercial broadcasting now also exists in most of these countries; the number

of countries with only public broadcasting declined substantially during the latter part of the 20th century.

  • Public-sector media (state-funded) is not to be confused with state media (state- controlled), which is “controlled financially and editorially by the state.
  • At first, the band consisted solely of Willgoose. He made his public debut at The Selkirk pub in Tooting, London, England in August 2009. Shortly afterwards he issued EP One. Teaming up with Wrigglesworth on drums the band played its first festival in September 2010, Aestival in Suffolk, and work began on a second EP, The War Room, which was

Space was supported by two shows at the National Space Centre in Leicester celebrating the album’s launch. The album charted just outside the top 10 in 11th place in the UK in its release week and reaching Number 1 in the UK Independent Charts for that week. A follow-up EP was released at the tail end of 2015 (Sputnik/Korolev) which was backed up by a UK tour, climaxing in the band’s biggest headline show, a sold-out night at the O2 Academy Brixton, of which a live album was released in 2016. While writing The War Room the band formed a close relationship with the British Film Institute, using their material during live shows.[6]

  • On 10 March 2017, PSB released a new single titled Progress featuring vocals from Tracyanne Campbell from Camera Obscura with photo shoots showing the band as a three-piece with new member JF Abraham featured on promotional photos. Their third studio album, entitled Every Valley, about the coal mining industry’s rise and fall in the Welsh Valleys between the 1950s and 1980s, was released on 7 July 2017. As with The Race for Space, the band had two album launch concerts, this time in Ebbw Vale, where the LP was recorded.
  • In June 2018, PSB appeared at the BBC Music “Big Weekend”, playing at the Titanic Quarter in Belfast. As part of this a series of four new pieces, based on the story of       the RMS Titanic, was debuted. These tracks were released as the EP White Star Liner on 26 October 2018.
  • They performed a “specially commissioned new arrangement” of The Race for Space on

25 July 2019 in a late-night Prom, joined by London Contemporary Voices and the Multi-Story Orchestra, the performance being shown on BBC television the following night.

  1. In December 2020, Willgoose released ambient solo EP A Wonderful Hope under the name Late Night Final. This release on PIAS Recordings, is a record which featured soundscape artist Teddy Hunter on the track “The Human Touch.


The primary mission of public broadcasting is that of public service, speaking to and engaging as a citizen. The British model has been widely accepted as a universal definition. The model embodies the following principles:

  • Universal geographic accessibility
  • Universal appeal
  • Attention to minorities
  • Contribution to national identity and sense of community
  • Distance from vested interests
  • Direct funding and universality of payment
  • Competition in good programming rather than numbers
  • Guidelines that liberate rather than restrict

While application of certain principles may be straightforward, as in the case of accessibility, some of the principles may be poorly defined or difficult to implement. In the context of a shifting national identity, the role of public broadcasting may be unclear. Likewise, the

subjective nature of good programming may raise the question of individual or public taste.

Within public broadcasting there are two different views regarding commercial activity. One is that public broadcasting is incompatible with commercial objectives. The other is that public broadcasting can and should compete in the marketplace with commercial broadcasters. This dichotomy is highlighted by the public service aspects of traditional commercial broadcasters.

Public broadcasters in each jurisdiction may or may not be synonymous with government controlled broadcasters. In some countries like the UK public broadcasters are not sanctioned by government departments and have independent means of funding, and thus enjoy editorial independence.


Public broadcasting utilizes radio,


Radio is the technology of signaling and communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 30 hertz (Hz) and 300 gigahertz (GHz). They are generated by an electronic device called a transmitter connected to an antenna which radiates the waves, and received by a radio receiver connected to another antenna. Radio is very widely used  in  modern  technology,  in  radio  communication, radar, radio   navigation, remote control, remote sensing and other applications.

In radio communication, used in radio and television  broadcasting, cell  phones, two-way  radios, wireless networking and satellite communication among numerous other uses, radio waves  are  used  to  carry   information   across   space   from   a   transmitter   to   a   receiver, by modulating the radio signal (impressing an information signal on the radio wave by varying some aspect of the wave) in the transmitter. In radar, used to locate and track objects like aircraft,

ships, spacecraft and missiles, a beam of radio waves emitted by a radar transmitter reflects off the target object, and the reflected waves reveal the object’s location. In radio navigation systems such as GPS and VOR, a mobile receiver receives radio signals  from navigational  radio  beacons whose position is known, and by precisely measuring the arrival time of the radio waves the receiver can  calculate  its  position  on  Earth.  In  wireless radio  remote  control devices  like drones, garage door openers, and keyless entry systems, radio signals transmitted from a controller device control the actions of a remote device.

Applications of radio waves which do not involve transmitting the waves significant distances, such as RF heating used in industrial processes  and microwave ovens, and medical uses such    as diathermy and MRI machines, are not usually called radio. The noun radio is also used to mean a broadcast radio receiver.

Radio waves were first identified and studied by German physicist Heinrich Hertz in 1886. The first  practical  radio  transmitters  and  receivers  were  developed  around  1895–1896  by  Italian Guglielmo Marconi, and radio began to be used commercially around 1900. To prevent interference between users, the emission of radio waves is regulated by law, coordinated by an international body called the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), which allocates frequency bands in the radio spectrum for different uses.

Radio technology

Radio waves are radiated by electric charges undergoing acceleration. They are generated artificially by time varying electric currents, consisting of electrons flowing back and forth in a metal conductor called an antenna,[6][7] thus accelerating. In transmission, a transmitter generates an alternating current of radio frequency which is applied to an antenna. The antenna radiates the power in the current as radio waves. When the waves strike the antenna of a radio receiver, they push the electrons in the metal back and forth, inducing a tiny alternating current. The radio receiver connected to the receiving antenna detects this oscillating current and amplifies it.

As they travel farther from the transmitting antenna, radio waves spread out so their signal strength (intensity in watts per square meter) decreases, so radio transmissions can only be received within a limited range of the transmitter, the distance depending on the transmitter power, antenna radiation pattern, receiver sensitivity, noise level, and presence of obstructions between transmitter and receiver. An omnidirectional antenna transmits or receives radio waves in all directions, while a directional antenna or high gain antenna transmits radio waves in a beam in a particular direction, or receives waves from only one direction.

Radio waves travel through a vacuum at the speed of light, and in air at very close to the speed of light, so the wavelength of a radio wave, the distance in meters between adjacent crests of the

wave, is inversely proportional to its frequency.

The    other    types    of electromagnetic    waves besides    radio    waves; infrared, visible   light, ultraviolet, X-rays and gamma rays, are also able to carry information and be used for communication. The wide use of radio waves for telecommunication is mainly due to their desirable propagation properties stemming from their large wavelength.[7] Radio waves have the ability  to   pass   through   the   atmosphere,   foliage,   and   most   building   materials,   and   by diffraction can bend around obstructions, and unlike other electromagnetic waves they tend to be scattered rather than absorbed by objects larger than their wavelength.

Radio communication

In radio communication systems, information is carried across space using radio waves. At the sending end, the information to be sent is converted by some type of transducer to a time- varying electrical  signal called  the  modulation  signal.[7][8] The  modulation  signal  may  be   an audio signal representing sound from a microphone, a video signal representing moving images from a video camera, or a digital signal consisting of a sequence of bits representing binary data from a computer. The modulation signal is applied to a radio transmitter. In the transmitter, an electronic oscillator generates an alternating current oscillating at a radio

frequency, called the carrier wave because it serves to “carry” the information through the air. The information signal is used to modulate the carrier, varying some aspect of the carrier wave, impressing    the    information    on    the    carrier.    Different    radio    systems     use   different modulation methods:

as WiFi networks, cellphones, digital television broadcasting, and digital audio

broadcasting (DAB) to transmit digital data using a minimum of radio spectrum bandwidth. It has higher spectral efficiency and more resistance to fading than AM or FM. In OFDM, multiple radio carrier waves closely spaced in frequency are transmitted within the radio channel, with each carrier modulated with bits from the incoming bitstream so multiple bits are being sent simultaneously, in parallel. At the receiver, the carriers are demodulated and the bits are combined in the proper order into one bitstream.

Many other types of modulation are also used. In some types, a carrier wave is not transmitted but just one or both modulation sidebands. The modulated carrier is amplified in the transmitter and applied to a transmitting antenna which radiates the energy as radio waves. The radio waves carry the information to the receiver location.

At the receiver, the radio wave induces a tiny oscillating voltage in the receiving antenna which is  a weaker replica of the current  in  the transmitting antenna.[7][8] This  voltage is  applied to  the radio receiver, which amplifies the weak radio signal so it is stronger, then demodulates it, extracting the original modulation signal from the modulated carrier wave. The modulation signal is converted by a transducer back to a human-usable form: an audio signal is converted    to sound  waves by  a  loudspeaker  or  earphones,  a video  signal is  converted  to   images  by  a display, while a digital signal is applied to a computer or microprocessor, which interacts with human users.

The radio waves from many transmitters pass through the air simultaneously without interfering with each other because each transmitter’s radio waves oscillate at a different rate, in other words, each transmitter has a different frequency, measured in kilohertz (kHz), megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz). The receiving antenna typically picks up the radio signals of many transmitters. The receiver uses tuned circuits to select the radio signal desired out of all the signals picked up by the antenna and reject the others. A tuned circuit (also called resonant circuit or tank circuit) acts like a resonator, similarly to a tuning fork.[8] It has a natural resonant frequency at which it oscillates. The resonant frequency of the receiver’s tuned circuit is adjusted by the user to the frequency of the desired radio station; this is called “tuning”. The oscillating radio signal from the desired station causes the tuned circuit to resonate, oscillate in sympathy, and it passes the signal on to the rest of the receiver. Radio signals at other frequencies are blocked by the tuned circuit and not passed on.


A modulated radio wave, carrying an information signal, occupies a range of frequencies. See diagram. The information (modulation) in a radio signal is usually concentrated in narrow     frequency     bands     called sidebands (SB)     just     above      and      below the carrier frequency. The width in hertz of the frequency range that the radio signal occupies,   the    highest    frequency    minus    the    lowest    frequency,    is    called    its bandwidth (BW).[9] For any given signal-to-noise ratio, an amount of bandwidth can carry the same amount of information (data rate in bits per second) regardless of where in the radio frequency spectrum it is located, so bandwidth is a measure of information- carrying capacity. The bandwidth required by a radio transmission depends on the data rate of the information (modulation signal) being sent,  and the spectral efficiency of    the modulation method used; how much data it can transmit in each kilohertz of bandwidth. Different types of information signals carried by radio have different data rates. For example, a television (video) signal has a greater data rate than an audio signal. The radio spectrum, the total range of radio frequencies that can be used for communication in a given area, is a limited resource.[9][3] Each radio transmission occupies a portion of the total bandwidth available. Radio bandwidth  is regarded as      an economic good which has a monetary cost and is in increasing demand. In some parts of the radio spectrum the right to use a frequency band or even a single radio channel is bought and sold for millions of dollars. So there is an incentive to employ technology to minimize the bandwidth used by radio services.

In recent years there has been a transition from analog to digital radio transmission technologies. Part of the reason for this is that digital modulation can often transmit more information (a greater data rate) in a given bandwidth  than analog  modulation,  by  using data compression algorithms, which reduce redundancy in the data to be sent, and more efficient modulation. Other reasons for the transition is that digital modulation has greater noise immunity than analog, digital signal processing chips have more power and flexibility than analog circuits, and a wide variety of types of information can be transmitted using the same digital modulation.

Because it is a fixed resource which is in demand by an increasing number of users, the radio spectrum has become increasingly congested in recent decades, and the need to use it more effectively is driving many additional radio innovations such as trunked radio systems, spread spectrum (ultra-wideband) transmission, frequency reuse, dynamic spectrum management, frequency pooling,

Radio spectrum

This article is about the spectral band. For the radiation, see radio wave. For the frequency,   see radio frequency.

The radio spectrum is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum with frequencies from 30 Hz to 300 GHz. Electromagnetic waves in this frequency range, called radio waves, are widely used in modern technology, particularly in telecommunication. To prevent interference between different

users, the generation and transmission of radio waves is strictly regulated by national laws, coordinated by an international body, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).[1]

Different parts of the radio spectrum are allocated by the ITU for different radio transmission technologies and  applications;  some  40 radiocommunication  services are  defined  in  the ITU’s Radio Regulations (RR). In some cases, parts of the radio spectrum are sold or licensed to operators of private radio transmission services (for example, cellular telephone operators or broadcast television stations). Ranges of allocated frequencies are often referred to by their provisioned use (for example, cellular spectrum or television spectrum). Because it is a fixed resource which is in demand by an increasing number of users, the radio spectrum has become increasingly congested in recent decades, and the need to utilize it more effectively is driving modern telecommunications innovations such as trunked radio systems, spread spectrum, ultra- wideband, frequency reuse, dynamic spectrum management, frequency pooling, and cognitive radio.


The frequency boundaries of the radio spectrum are a matter of convention in physics and are somewhat arbitrary. Since radio waves are the lowest frequency category of electromagnetic waves, there is no lower limit to the frequency of radio waves.At the high frequency end the radio spectrum is bounded by the infrared band. The boundary between radio waves and infrared waves is defined at different frequencies in different scientific fields. The terahertz band, from

300 gigahertz to 3 terahertz, can be considered either as microwaves or infrared. It is the highest band categorized as radio waves by the International Telecommunications Union,but spectroscopic scientists consider these frequencies part of the far infrared band.

The practical limits of the radio spectrum, the frequencies which are useful practically for radio communication, are determined by technological limitations which are unlikely to be overcome. So although the radio spectrum is becoming increasingly congested, there is little prospect of additional frequency bandwidth outside that currently in use becoming available.

The lowest frequencies used for radio communication are limited by the increasing size of transmitting antennas required. The size of antenna required to radiate radio power efficiently increases in proportion to wavelength or inversely with frequency. Below about 10 kHz (a wavelength of 30 km), elevated wire antennas kilometers in diameter are required, so very few radio systems use frequencies below this. A second limit is the decreasing bandwidth available at low frequencies, which limits the data rate that can be transmitted. Below about 30 kHz, audio modulation is impractical and only slow baud rate data communication is used. The lowest frequencies that have been used for radio communication are around 80 Hz, in ELF submarine communications systems built by a few nations’ navies to communicate with their submerged submarines hundreds of meters underwater.  These  employ huge ground  dipole antennas  20– 60 km long excited by megawatts of transmitter power, and transmit data at an extremely slow rate of about 1 bit per minute (17 mbit/s, or about 5 minutes per character).

The highest frequencies useful for radio communication are limited by the absorption of microwave energy by the atmosphere. As frequency increases above 30 GHz (the beginning of the millimeter wave band), atmospheric gases absorb increasing amounts of power, so the power in a beam of radio waves decreases exponentially with distance from the transmitting antenna. At 30 GHz, useful communication is limited to about 1 km, but as frequency increases the range at which the waves can be received decreases. At 300 GHz, the radio waves are attenuated to zero within a few meters, so the atmosphere is essentially opaque.


Pakhtunkhwa Radio FM 92.6 MHz Mardan languages:

Pakhtunkhwa Radio FM 92.6 MHz Mardan primarily broadcasts in the Pakhto language (also known as Pashto). Pakhto is the native language of the majority of the population in the region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly known as Pakhtunkhwa) in Pakistan. Since the radio station aims to cater to the local audience and promote Pakhtun culture and language, it predominantly airs programs in Pakhto. This includes news, talk shows, music, drama, educational content, and other programs that resonate with the linguistic and cultural preferences of the community.

Program script for Pakhtunkhwa Radio FM 92.6 MHz

Creating a full program script for Pakhtunkhwa Radio FM 92.6 MHz requires a detailed understanding of the station’s target audience, content preferences, and specific program formats. However, I can provide you with a sample outline for a general radio program that reflects the station’s objectives and potential content. Keep in mind that the duration, segments, and actual content can vary based on the time slot and the nature of the program. Here’s a sample outline for a one-hour radio program:

Program: “Pakhtun Cultural Delights”

Duration: 1 hour


  • Host’s greeting and introduction to the program.
  • Briefly explain the purpose of the show and its focus on promoting Pakhtun culture, language, and music.

Segment 1: “Traditional Pakhtun Music”

  • Play a selection of classic and contemporary Pakhtun songs.
  • Provide brief background information about each song, its cultural significance, and the artist.
  • Encourage listener participation by requesting song dedications or taking song requests through phone calls or social media.

Segment 2: “Pakhtun Proverbs and Folktales”

  • Share interesting and thought-provoking Pakhtun proverbs and folktales.
  • Explain the meanings and moral lessons behind each proverb or story.
  • Invite listeners to call in and share their favorite proverbs or childhood folktales.

Segment 3: “Local Artisans and Craftsmanship”

  • Feature interviews with local artisans and craftsmen who specialize in traditional Pakhtun handicrafts.
  • Discuss the significance of their work in preserving Pakhtun cultural heritage.
  • Provide information on where listeners can support and purchase their products.

Segment 4: “Community Spotlight”

  • Highlight a local community initiative, event, or social project.
  • Interview the organizers or participants to share the impact of the initiative on the community.
  • Encourage listeners to get involved or support the cause.

Segment 5: “Pakhtun Poetry Corner”

  • Read and recite famous Pakhtun poetry and couplets.
  • Discuss the historical context and poetic themes of each selected piece.
  • Invite aspiring poets to call in and share their own poetry.

Segment 6: “Trivia and Quiz”

  • Conduct a fun and interactive quiz related to Pakhtun culture, history, and traditions.
  • Invite listeners to call in and participate, offering small prizes for correct answers.


  • Recap the highlights of the show and thank listeners for tuning in.
  • Remind listeners of upcoming programs, events, or initiatives on Pakhtunkhwa Radio FM 92.6 MHz.
  • Encourage feedback, song requests, and suggestions from the audience.

Short radio program on culture of Pakhtunkhwa Radio FM 92.6 MHz

Program: “Pakhtun Cultural Mosaic”

Host ( Muhammad Shehryar Khan) : Assalamualaikum, dear listeners! Welcome to “Pakhtun Cultural Mosaic,” your window into the rich and vibrant cultural tapestry of Pakhtunkhwa. I’m your host Muhammad Shehryar Khan, and I’m thrilled to embark on this cultural journey with you today.

Shehryar: Today, we are going to immerse ourselves in the essence of Pakhtun culture, exploring its art, music, language, and traditions. So, sit back, relax, and let’s begin our exciting adventure!

Segment 1: “Pakhtun Music Journey”

Shehryar: Our first stop is the world of music, where we’ll dive into the melodious tunes and soulful lyrics that have been part of Pakhtun heritage for centuries. From traditional folk songs to modern compositions, we’ll celebrate the diversity and beauty of Pakhtun music.

Shehryar: (played) laar sha Pekhawar ta song

Shehryar: We hope that song transported you to the heart of Pakhtun culture. Stay tuned for more musical delights throughout the show!

Segment 2: “Tales of Valor and Bravery”

Shehryar: The Pakhtun people have a rich history of bravery and valor. Let’s now hear fascinating stories of courage and resilience that have been passed down through generations.

Shehryar: Captain Colonel Sher khan of 12th NLI who belongs to Swabi bought bravely in Kargil war against the Indian forces. After he embraced Shadat, His bravery was even recognized by the Indian Brigadier there who wrote a short letter about Sher’s bravery and put that letter in his pocket which was opened by Pak Army once his body arrived in Pakistan. Pak Army bestowed kernel Sher Shaheed with the highest military award of Nishan e Haider after his martyrdom. He is the first pakhtoon to have received Nishan e Haider.

Segment 3: “Colors of Traditional Artistry”

shehryar: Our next stop is the world of Pakhtun artists. Today, we’re honored to have a local artisan joining us to share their creative journey.

Shehryar: we are joined by Muhammad Alaudin who belongs to Swabi. He is a great painter. He did his education from beaconhouse Islamabad and APS Murree. He is a God gifted painter. He was declared best painter of Asia during a painting competition at Islamic university Islamabad from where Alaudin sahib completed LLB shariah and Law. He was interviewed by Afghan tv for his art work

Segment 4: “Language: The Soul of Culture”

shehryar: The Pakhto language is an essential pillar of Pakhtun identity. It’s not just a language; it’s the soul of our culture. Let’s delve into some beautiful Pakhtun proverbs and phrases that carry the wisdom of generations.

shehryar:  awal zaan de pase jahan de means charity begins at home.  Da sabar mewa khwaga da means patience hath a reward. Sakhte pase raata wi means adversity is followed by prosperity

Segment 5: “Community Showcase”

shehryar: We believe in celebrating the spirit of community. In this segment, we’ll shine the spotlight on a remarkable community project that’s making a difference in the lives of the people.

Shehryar: Interview with community project organizer Bahar ali of Mansabdar Swabi who has made a local organization  for collecting blood from general people and donating those samples to those patients who need emergency blood. Bahar has done a wonderful job. He has almost collected 120 samples of different blood groups.

Segment 6: “Poetry Corner”

Shehryar: No cultural journey is complete without poetry. Let’s indulge in the enchanting world of Pakhtun poetry, where emotions find solace and hearts connect.

shehryar: daase ba der gulona teer shi, zama ao stab a pake nawi deeduna

shehryar: Before we wrap up our cultural mosaic, we have a quick Pakhtun culture quiz for our lovely listeners! Call in to participate and win exciting prizes.

shehryar: (Conduct the quiz with callers), who was the first pashtoon to win Nishan e Haider, caller answered Cpt Kernal Sher Shaheed. who is the symbol of Pashto poetry, caller answered Abdul Rehman baba.


Shehryar: Sadly, our journey through the Pakhtun cultural mosaic comes to an end, but the beauty of our heritage lives on. Remember, dear listeners, our culture is a treasure, and it’s our duty to preserve and pass it on to the next generation.

Shehryar: Thank you all for tuning in to “Pakhtun Cultural Mosaic” on Pakhtunkhwa Radio FM 92.6 MHz. Stay connected, stay proud, and keep celebrating the unique charm of Pakhtun culture. Until next time, Khuda Hafiz!

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