Language skills and Communicative abilities (964/9266)

autumn, 2023

Q.1      Define feature. Discuss different types of feature with examples.      

Features can be tangible or intangible, functional or aesthetic, and can range from basic to advanced. In product development, features are typically identified through market research and customer feedback. They are then prioritized based on their importance to users and the resources required to implement them. Features can be added, removed, or modified based on changing user needs and competitive pressures. In software development, features are often defined as user stories, which describe a specific user need or requirement. These user stories are then used to develop a product backlog, which is a prioritized list of features that need to be developed. As the product is developed, features are tested and refined based on user feedback and quality assurance processes. In marketing, features are often highlighted in product descriptions and advertisements to differentiate a product from its competitors and communicate its value proposition. For example, a smartphone might be marketed based on its camera features, battery life, or user interface. Overall, features are an essential aspect of product development and marketing, as they help to differentiate a product from its competitors, meet user needs, and create value for customers.

Types of Feature Stories in Journalism Here we will discuss in detail the different types of feature stories in Journalism

News Feature

This type of story has its basis upon timely news happening with a human-interest angle is called a news feature Often a news happening can be made much more interesting or newsworthy by writing it in a semi-feature sort of thing. A news feature is generally timelier than a straight human interest or a long feature story.

Informative Feature

This type does not use many of the fiction writer’s devices, since its purpose is to inform more than to entertain. It may be very closely related to the so called “New Journalism”. Facts for this type are usually obtained from interviews, library research and personal observation. To create interest feature writer, includes human-interest elements in his feature. Its success depends upon the accuracy facts and the style and form with which it is presented.

Personality Sketches

It is very popular among the readers as everybody wants to know about other people. These features are written about those men and women whose stories are worth telling because they are historical characters in whom interest survives long after they are dead. This type is not easy to write as it is an uphill task to portray a personality with artistic preci’seness. Facts about the person are obtained from his friends, teachers, relatives and associates. While writing a personality sketch a feature writer must avoid, stereotyped pattern that finds it way into these features very often.

Personal Experience Story

This Feature Story is in the form of an interview. It must deal with an unusual experience or a wonderful accomplishment. The writer must be careful not to en1ogize the subject but rather allow the facts to tell the story by themselves.

Human Interest Feature Story

Human-interest sketches are written under the influence of humorous and pathetic incidents that are reported in the daily routine. It usually develops from an ordinary incident or situation but due to fantastic style of composition appeals to the emotions. But it must be kept in mind that it is based upon facts of a timely nature. It’s news value is almost nil and it would not have been published if it were not presented in an interesting and entertaining style. Therefore it entertains more than it informs. It may be written about almost anything i.e. person’s places, animals etc.

Historical Feature

Though It is deal with events or personalities of the past, have interest for present day readers because the facts these features give:

  • are timely.
  • are unique.
  • throw new light on an old story.
  • debunk wrong popular beliefs.
  • promote speculation and imagery among the readers.


Interpretative Feature

Interpretative features inform, instruct and throw light on the background of certain problems. The following topics are usually discussed under the heading or interpretative feature. Social problems, Economic problems, Political problems, Problems of everyday life.

Popularized Scientific Feature

Popularized scientific articles, bridging the gap, which separated the scientist and journalist for a long-time present scientifically accurate facts in a non-technical easily understood language

Q.2      Differentiate between spoken and written language. Also highlight the purpose and problems of writing.

Spoken and written language are two distinct modes of communication, each with its own characteristics, advantages, and limitations. Here are some key differences between spoken and written language:

  1. Medium:
    1. Spoken Language: Involves the use of sound, delivered through speech or oral communication. It is immediate and often ephemeral, existing only in the moment of utterance.
    1. Written Language: Utilizes visual symbols (e.g., letters, characters) to represent language. It is a more permanent form of communication that can be preserved over time.
  2. Production:
    1. Spoken Language: Produced in real-time, allowing for spontaneous expression, intonation, and non-verbal cues such as gestures and facial expressions.
    1. Written Language: Produced at a slower pace, allowing for careful consideration of words and structures. It lacks the immediate presence of non-verbal cues.
  3. Reception:
    1. Spoken Language: Received through listening, involving auditory processing. Listeners must decode spoken words quickly as they are presented.
    1. Written Language: Received through reading, involving visual processing. Readers have the opportunity to go back and reread, providing more time for comprehension.
  4. Formality:
    1. Spoken Language: Tends to be more informal and conversational. It often includes colloquial expressions, informal vocabulary, and may be less structured.
    1. Written Language: Tends to be more formal, structured, and polished. It adheres to grammar and punctuation rules, making it suitable for more formal communication.
  5. Flexibility:
    1. Spoken Language: Allows for on-the-fly adjustments, interruptions, and immediate responses. It is dynamic and adaptable.
    1. Written Language: Typically planned and revised before being presented. It lacks the same level of spontaneity as spoken language.
  6. Presence of Redundancy:
    1. Spoken Language: May include redundancy, repetition, and filler words. These elements contribute to clarity and understanding in real-time communication.
    1. Written Language: Generally strives for conciseness and efficiency. Redundancy is often minimized in written texts.
  7. Interaction:
    1. Spoken Language: Supports real-time interaction, facilitating immediate feedback and clarification. Conversations are dynamic and interactive.
    1. Written Language: Often one-sided, with the writer presenting information to be read by an audience. Interaction is delayed, occurring through subsequent responses.
  8. Conveyance of Emotion:
    1. Spoken Language: Conveys emotions through intonation, pitch, and tone of voice. The emotional nuances are immediately evident.
    1. Written Language: Relies on words, punctuation, and formatting to convey emotion. The interpretation of emotion may vary depending on the reader’s perspective.
  9. Preservation:
    1. Spoken Language: Typically not easily preserved unless recorded. It is more ephemeral, existing in the moment of communication.
    1. Written Language: Can be easily preserved through various means like books, articles, or digital media. It allows for communication across time and space.

Understanding these differences is essential for effective communication in various contexts, as the choice between spoken and written language depends on the purpose, audience, and desired impact of the communication.

Purposes of written language:

 The purpose of written communication is to capture your reader’s attention and get your point across clearly. Ultimately, when you communicate in writing, you are helping the reader understand your perspective on a topic. There are certain qualities all effective written communication shares, and if you add these elements to your writing, your work will be more powerful.

Importance of Effective Written Communication

In some ways, effective written communication is even more important than spoken communication. Unless it is being recorded, regular speech does not last. However, written communication is a record, and people may refer back to it later. This means that in addition to creating a connection with your audience, you need to consider the lasting impact of what you write. Think about how it will be perceived by your audience initially, as well as the impact it will leave.

The Five Cs of Effective Written Communication

Good written communication depends on the audience, the topic, your purpose in communicating, and other factors. However, all effective written communication has some characteristics in common:

Connection – Good written communication forms a connection between the reader and the writer.

Clarity – Effective written communication is clear and easy to understand.

Cause – The cause or reason for writing needs to be clear to both the writer and the reader, including any specific actions you need from your audience.

Conciseness – Good written communication sticks to the point and doesn’t meander around or include lots of extraneous information.

Correctness – To be effective, the written communication should use the correct tone, inoffensive language, and appropriate grammar.

 How to Make Your Writing Communicate Effectively Effective writing allows the reader to thoroughly understand everything you are saying. This is not always easy to do. Here are a few tips that will help you:

1. Know Your Goal and State It Clearly Do you want the reader to do something for you, or are you merely passing along information? Do you want a response from the reader, or do you want him to take action? Effective written communication has a clear purpose, and that purpose is communicated to the reader. Explain in clear terms what you want the reader to do.

2. Use the Correct Tone for Your Purpose Tone can help your writing be more effective. Certain forms of communication, like memorandums and proposals, need a formal tone. Writing to someone you know well would need a more informal tone. The kind of tone depends on the audience and purpose of the writing.

3. Keep Language Simple Do not overuse clichés, jargon, and expressions or try to impress with big words. This can make the reader work harder, and you want to make it easy to understand what you’re saying.

4. Stay on Topic and Keep It Concise Effective written communication stays on topic. Avoid information that is not relevant. Clarity is key. Less is more when it comes to length. Keep sentences and paragraphs short and concise, since long, complicated sentences will slow the reader down. Leave out words that do not contribute to the main focus of the communication.

5. Use Active Voice Using an active voice will strengthen your writing. It’s easier to understand sentences that are written in the active voice. An active example is “I caught the ball,” and a passive example is “The ball was caught by me.” Active voice will engage the reader and keep his or her attention.

6. Have Someone Proofread Your Writing Good grammar and punctuation are very important. It is a good idea to have someone else proofread your writing before you send it. If you cannot do that, then try reading it out loud.

Q.3      Explain Column Writing. Also discuss its characteristics. How is it different from other pieces of writing? Discuss.

It seems there might be some confusion or a lack of context regarding the term “Column Writing.” Without a specific context, it’s challenging to provide a precise explanation. However, I can offer information about two potential interpretations: column writing in journalism and column-based data storage.

  1. Column Writing in Journalism:
    1. In journalism, a column typically refers to a recurring opinion or commentary piece written by a specific author, often referred to as a columnist. A columnist is someone who regularly contributes articles, expressing their views or analysis on various topics. The column format allows for a more personal and subjective writing style, as opposed to the more objective reporting found in news articles.
    1. Columnists may cover a wide range of subjects, including politics, culture, lifestyle, or personal experiences. The goal is to engage readers with the author’s perspective and insights. These columns are usually featured in specific sections of newspapers or magazines.
  2. Column-Based Data Storage:
    1. In the context of databases and data storage, a column refers to a vertical arrangement of data in a table. Each column contains values of a specific data type, and each row represents an individual record. This approach is in contrast to row-based storage, where each row contains all the data for a single record.
    1. Columnar databases are designed to store and retrieve data more efficiently, especially for analytical queries that involve aggregations or computations on specific columns. This structure is well-suited for scenarios where reading specific columns of data is more common than reading entire rows.

If you had a different interpretation or context in mind for “Column Writing,” please provide additional details so that I can offer a more targeted explanation.

Let’s discuss the characteristics of column writing in journalism and column-based data storage:

Column Writing in Journalism:

  1. Opinion and Commentary:
    1. The primary characteristic of column writing is that it often involves the expression of personal opinions and commentary. Columnists share their perspectives, insights, and analyses on various topics, ranging from current events to cultural trends.
  2. Authorship:
    1. Columns are typically authored by a specific individual, known as the columnist. Unlike news articles, which aim for objectivity, columns reflect the subjective viewpoint and unique writing style of the columnist.
  3. Regular Recurrence:
    1. Columns are published on a regular basis, often weekly or bi-weekly. Readers come to anticipate and expect the insights of a particular columnist, creating a sense of familiarity.
  4. Diverse Topics:
    1. Columnists have the freedom to explore diverse topics based on their interests and expertise. These topics can include politics, social issues, lifestyle, entertainment, or any subject that aligns with the columnist’s expertise or passions.
  5. Engagement with Readers:
    1. Columnists often engage with their readership through letters to the editor, online comments, or social media. This interaction allows for a direct exchange of ideas between the columnist and the audience.
  6. Distinctive Voice:
    1. Columnists cultivate a distinctive voice in their writing, which sets them apart from other journalists. This voice contributes to the personality and appeal of the column.

Column-Based Data Storage:

  1. Vertical Arrangement:
    1. In a columnar database or column-based data storage, data is organized vertically by columns rather than horizontally by rows. Each column stores data of a specific attribute or data type.
  2. Compression Efficiency:
    1. Columnar storage is often more space-efficient compared to row-based storage, especially when dealing with large datasets. Compression algorithms can be more effective because similar data types are stored together in each column.
  3. Analytical Processing:
    1. Columnar databases are optimized for analytical queries that involve aggregations, filtering, or computations on specific columns. This makes them well-suited for data warehouse environments where analytical processing is a primary use case.
  4. Query Performance:
    1. Analytical queries that involve reading specific columns are typically faster in columnar databases. This is advantageous in scenarios where analytical insights are derived from large datasets.
  5. Schema Flexibility:
    1. Some columnar databases offer schema flexibility, allowing for dynamic addition or removal of columns without affecting the entire table structure. This can be beneficial in scenarios where data requirements evolve over time.
  6. Parallel Processing:
    1. Columnar databases can take advantage of parallel processing, allowing for the parallel execution of queries on different columns. This contributes to improved performance in data-intensive analytical workloads.

Understanding these characteristics helps in appreciating the strengths and applications of column writing in journalism and column-based data storage in the context of databases.

Column writing differs from other pieces of writing, such as news articles, essays, and features, in terms of its purpose, style, and structure. Here are some key distinctions:

  1. Purpose:
    1. Column Writing: The primary purpose of a column is to provide a platform for the columnist’s opinions, perspectives, and commentary on various subjects. Columns aim to engage readers emotionally, intellectually, or even humorously, depending on the columnist’s style.
    1. News Articles: News articles, on the other hand, are objective and focus on presenting factual information in a neutral manner. The goal is to inform the audience about current events, issues, or developments without introducing personal opinions.
  2. Authorship:
    1. Column Writing: Columns are typically associated with a specific author, known as the columnist. The author’s personality, voice, and perspective play a significant role in shaping the content.
    1. News Articles: News articles are generally written by journalists who strive for objectivity. Journalists aim to report the facts without injecting personal opinions or biases into the content.
  3. Tone and Style:
    1. Column Writing: Columns often have a subjective and conversational tone. The writing style can be informal, humorous, or reflective, depending on the columnist’s preferences. Columnists may use first-person narrative and employ literary devices to engage readers.
    1. News Articles: News articles maintain a more formal and objective tone. The language is factual, and journalists adhere to a neutral style, avoiding personal opinions or emotions in their reporting.
  4. Frequency and Recurrence:
    1. Column Writing: Columns are typically published regularly, with a consistent recurrence, such as weekly or bi-weekly. This regularity builds a relationship between the columnist and the audience.
    1. News Articles: News articles are published as events unfold. They are often tied to the immediacy of breaking news or ongoing developments, and their publication frequency is driven by the news cycle.
  5. Content Variety:
    1. Column Writing: Columns allow for a broad range of topics, and columnists have the flexibility to explore personal interests, societal issues, or cultural trends. The content may include anecdotes, opinions, and reflections.
    1. News Articles: News articles adhere to a more structured format, focusing on the “who,” “what,” “where,” “when,” and “why” of a story. They provide factual information in a concise and straightforward manner.
  6. Engagement and Interaction:
    1. Column Writing: Columnists often engage with readers through letters to the editor, online comments, or social media. Interaction with the audience is encouraged, and readers may respond directly to the columnist’s opinions.
    1. News Articles: While news articles may generate public discussion, the interaction with readers is generally less direct. Journalists aim to present information rather than actively seek reader engagement in the same way columnists do.

Understanding these distinctions helps readers and writers appreciate the diverse purposes and approaches that different forms of writing, including columns and news articles, serve in the media landscape.

Q.4      What is Editorial? Explain its characteristics. Also write a brief editorial note on “Price Hiking in Pakistan.

An editorial is a type of written composition that expresses the opinion, analysis, and viewpoint of the editorial board or the editorial team of a publication, such as a newspaper, magazine, or online platform. Editorials are distinct from news articles in that they offer a platform for the publication’s perspective on significant issues, events, or topics. They serve as a powerful tool for shaping public opinion, influencing discourse, and driving conversations on matters of societal, political, or cultural significance.

Characteristics of Editorials:

  1. Opinion and Analysis: Editorials provide a platform for the publication to present its informed opinion on a particular subject. Unlike news articles that aim to provide objective information, editorials are analytical and evaluative, delving into the why and how behind events or issues.
  2. Collective Voice: Editorials are typically authored by the editorial board or a group of individuals representing the publication’s stance. This collective voice reflects the consensus and expertise of the publication’s staff members.
  3. Persuasive Intent: Editorials aim to persuade readers to adopt a certain viewpoint or take a specific course of action. They often present logical arguments, evidence, and reasoning to support their opinions and convince readers.
  4. Public Interest and Relevance: Editorials address issues that are of public interest and relevance. They tackle topics that impact society, politics, culture, or the economy and provide insights to help readers navigate complex subjects.
  5. Editorial Agenda: Many publications have an editorial agenda that reflects their core values, mission, and goals. This agenda guides the selection of topics and shapes the stance taken in editorials.
  6. Influence and Authority: Editorials carry a sense of authority due to their association with reputable publications. Their influence extends beyond the publication’s readership, as they often spark conversations and are cited by other media outlets.
  7. Call to Action: Editorials frequently include a call to action, urging readers to engage with the issue or take steps towards a particular solution. This proactive approach encourages civic participation and engagement.
  8. Balance and Fairness: While editorials express opinions, they should still strive for balance and fairness. A well-constructed editorial considers counterarguments and addresses potential criticisms, demonstrating a thoughtful and respectful approach.
  9. Engagement with Current Events: Editorials often respond to current events, whether they are local, national, or global in scope. They provide timely commentary that contributes to ongoing discussions.
  10. Distinctive Tone and Style: Editorials adopt a formal yet engaging tone, reflecting the seriousness of the issues discussed. They use persuasive language, rhetorical devices, and evidence to make a compelling case.
  11. Platform for Civic Discourse: Editorials contribute to the broader societal conversation by presenting diverse viewpoints, raising awareness about pressing issues, and encouraging readers to think critically.
  12. Placement within the Publication: Editorials are typically positioned in prominent sections of a publication, often near the front. This placement underscores their significance and ensures that they are readily accessible to readers.

In essence, editorials serve as a bridge between a publication and its readers, offering insight, analysis, and perspective on issues of public concern. Through well-crafted arguments, balanced reasoning, and persuasive language, editorials engage readers in meaningful discussions, challenge established norms, and influence the direction of public discourse. As an integral component of media, editorials play a vital role in shaping public opinion and fostering informed civic engagement.

Write a brief editorial note on “Price Hiking in Pakistan.

Editorial Note: The Challenge of Price Hiking in Pakistan

In recent months, Pakistan has faced a growing concern that has touched the lives of every citizen: the relentless surge in prices across various essential commodities. The phenomenon of price hiking, while not unique to Pakistan, has presented a significant challenge that demands urgent attention and thoughtful intervention.

The escalation in prices, ranging from basic food items to fuel and energy, has placed a considerable burden on the average Pakistani household. The ripple effects of these increases extend beyond the immediate economic strain, impacting the overall quality of life and exacerbating existing socio-economic disparities.

At the heart of this issue lies a complex interplay of domestic and international factors. Fluctuating global commodity prices, geopolitical uncertainties, and local economic conditions have converged to create a perfect storm that now threatens the financial stability of many households.

Addressing the challenges posed by price hiking requires a multi-faceted approach. Firstly, it calls for a thorough examination of domestic economic policies, trade practices, and supply chain dynamics. Simultaneously, there is a need for transparent communication and collaboration with the public, ensuring that citizens are informed about the government’s efforts and plans to mitigate the impact.

Moreover, this situation demands a global perspective, recognizing that the interconnected nature of economies means that local issues can have far-reaching consequences. International cooperation and dialogue become pivotal in navigating the complexities of trade and economic stability.

As the editorial board, we urge policymakers to prioritize and expedite measures that provide relief to the citizens grappling with the effects of price hikes. This includes targeted support for vulnerable populations, regulatory measures to curb speculative practices, and the fostering of an environment conducive to sustainable economic growth.

In these challenging times, it is essential for all stakeholders government, businesses, and civil society to work collaboratively towards finding viable solutions. Only through a collective and concerted effort can we hope to alleviate the burden of price hiking on the people of Pakistan and pave the way for a more stable and prosperous future.

Q.5      What are high frequency news stories? Mention the guidelines for writing.       

The high frequency news stories in Pakistan can vary over time based on current events, developments, and societal trends. However, some recurring topics and areas of focus in Pakistani news include:

  1. Politics and Government: News related to political developments, government policies, elections, and diplomatic relations often take center stage. Pakistan’s political landscape is dynamic and can lead to frequent news coverage, especially during election cycles and times of policy shifts.
  2. Security and Terrorism: The security situation in Pakistan, including counterterrorism operations, clashes with extremist groups, and efforts to maintain law and order, regularly makes headlines due to its impact on both domestic and international fronts.
  3. Economy and Finance: Economic indicators, fiscal policies, foreign investments, trade agreements, inflation rates, and the stock market performance are of significant interest to the public, business community, and policymakers.
  4. Human Rights and Social Issues: Stories related to human rights violations, women’s rights, minority rights, education, health, and poverty often gain substantial attention, reflecting concerns for social justice and societal well-being.
  5. International Relations: Developments in relations with neighboring countries, such as India and Afghanistan, as well as Pakistan’s role in regional and global organizations, are covered extensively in the news.
  6. Environment and Climate Change: Environmental issues, such as air and water pollution, deforestation, climate change impacts, and conservation efforts, are increasingly becoming important news topics.
  7. Technology and Innovation: Advancements in technology, digital entrepreneurship, the rise of startups, and issues related to cybersecurity and digital privacy are gaining prominence in the news.
  8. Healthcare and Pandemic Updates: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has led to regular updates on infection rates, vaccination efforts, healthcare infrastructure, and government responses.
  9. Cultural and Entertainment News: News related to Pakistan’s vibrant arts, culture, and entertainment scenes, including film, music, fashion, and sports, often captures the public’s attention.
  10. Infrastructure and Development: News about infrastructure projects, urban development, energy generation, and transportation initiatives contribute to discussions on the country’s progress.

Please note that news topics can change rapidly, and the list above may not represent the most current trends in Pakistani news. To get the most up-to-date and accurate information on high-frequency news stories in Pakistan, I recommend consulting reputable Pakistani news sources and staying informed through current news broadcasts, newspapers, and online platforms.

Writing effective news stories requires adherence to journalistic principles and a structured approach that ensures accuracy, clarity, and readability. Here are some guidelines to consider when writing news stories:

1. Objective Reporting: News stories should be unbiased and objective. Present the facts without inserting personal opinions or emotions. Use neutral language to maintain credibility and allow readers to form their own opinions.

2. The Inverted Pyramid: Structure your news story using the inverted pyramid style. Place the most important information (who, what, where, when, why, and how) in the opening paragraph. Subsequent paragraphs should contain supporting details in descending order of importance.

3. Clear and Concise Language: Use clear, simple language that is easy for readers to understand. Avoid jargon, technical terms, and overly complex sentences. Aim for concise and to-the-point writing.

4. Accuracy and Fact-Checking: Accuracy is paramount in news reporting. Verify all information from reliable sources before publishing. Double-check names, dates, statistics, and other factual details to ensure correctness.

5. Attribution and Sources: Attribute information to credible sources. Use direct quotes, paraphrasing, or summarization to attribute information to individuals or organizations. Clearly distinguish between facts and opinions.

6. Lead and Headline: Craft a compelling lead (opening paragraph) that captures the essence of the story. A strong lead should summarize the most important details and entice readers to continue reading. Write a clear, concise headline that accurately represents the story’s content.

7. AP Style or House Style: Follow a consistent style guide, such as the Associated Press (AP) style or your publication’s house style. This ensures uniformity in spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and formatting.

8. Timeliness: News stories should be timely and relevant. Cover events as soon as possible after they occur to provide readers with the most current information.

9. Attribution for Opinions and Speculation: Differentiate between statements of fact and statements of opinion. When reporting opinions or speculations, attribute them to the appropriate sources and provide context.

10. Balance and Fairness: Present multiple perspectives on an issue to provide a balanced view. Give fair representation to all sides of the story to avoid bias.

11. Avoid Sensationalism: Present the story in a responsible manner and avoid sensationalizing events. Maintain a respectful tone and prioritize accurate reporting over attracting attention through exaggerated language.

12. Active Voice and Third Person: Use the active voice to make your writing more engaging. Write in the third person to maintain a sense of objectivity.

13. Proofreading and Editing: Proofread your news story for grammatical errors, typos, and formatting issues. Editing is crucial to ensure the story is coherent and well-structured.

14. Context and Background: Provide context and background information when necessary. Help readers understand the significance of the story by offering relevant historical or contextual details.

15. Visual Elements: Consider incorporating visuals like images, infographics, or videos to enhance the reader’s understanding of the story.

By adhering to these guidelines, you can produce news stories that inform, engage, and maintain the trust of your audience.

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