Exam spring,2023 National & International Current Affairs-I (5633)

 Mass Communication Semester-IV


Important Questions with Answers prepared by Faiza Gul, Ali Raza (Errors and omissions acceptable) Disclaimer: All Questions and Answers are Based on self assessment and It is only Guess material.


According to your opinion how the problems of inflation, Illiteracy and joblessness can be reduced in Pakistan?


The primary goal of this analysis was to determine the impact of inflation, poverty, unemployment, and population growth on economic growth in Pakistan using time series data from 1986 to 2020.

The Pakistani economy has been determined to have a strong and negative link between inflation and economic growth. After a certain point, generalized inflation seems to be harmful to economic growth in the country. New governmental strategies and policies are required to tackle this issue in order to boost economic progress.

Policymakers and experts have been worried about unemployment and inflation, especially in developing countries. In the macroeconomic environment, employment and inflation are two of the most important indicators and variables for economic progress and development. Changes in the money supply are often blamed for inflation. The price of many goods rises as the amount of money in circulation increases.

Inflation and unemployment are two of the most significant issues confronting many countries today. These factors have an influence on a variety of economic activities, including savings, investment, exports, poverty reduction, and growth. Inflation, for example, will have a negative impact on social wellbeing. Low inflation, on the other hand, is likely to result in lower economic growth rates, a larger proclivity for poverty, lower employment, and a sluggish economic decline. Unpredictable price rises in products and services signify inflation.

Literature Review:

 Unemployment is a critical problem in global economic progress. It has happened in both developed and emerging economies in recent years, despite the fact that unemployment in wealthy countries has reduced considerably. In emerging economies, unemployment is growing fast, resulting in reduced family incomes and worse living standards, which contribute to a rise in the frequency and severity of poverty [15]. A lack of economic opportunity is seen to increase the level of poverty for individuals or families, which is a major impediment to economic progress.

Poverty in country:

Poverty is another significant hindrance to achieving a high standard of living, and it may be found in practically every region on the planet. Unavoidable unemployment is one of the main causes of poverty; therefore, a rise in the unemployment rate should result in an increase in poverty. Poverty levels inevitably rise as unemployment rises. Some nations have identified a positive correlation between poverty and unemployment. This paper makes a novel addition to the current literature on inflation, poverty, unemployment, and economic growth in Pakistan, and yet no study has been undertaken to highlight this rising concern.

Study Methodology:

This investigation’s major aim was to determine the impact of inflation, poverty, unemployment, and population growth on economic growth in Pakistan by using annual datasets which were taken from the World Bank website for the years 1986 to 2020.

In every economy, inflation and unemployment are grave concerns. Macroeconomic policy aims to keep inflation and unemployment low as part of the wider macroeconomic policy goal. Obviously, the government’s macroeconomic priorities include maintaining stable domestic prices, steady economic growth, and employment stability. Unemployment, inflation, and the production growth rate are the three most important indices of macroeconomic success. When inflation and exchange rates destabilize GDP (Gross Domestic Product), economic evidence shows a range of responses. This is because the link between fluctuating exchange rates and GDP is especially troublesome in emerging and developing economies. Furthermore, the survey’s findings about the relationship between exchange rate volatility and inflation-GDP are not widely recognized.

 Unemployment, Causes and Control:

            1)            Low Industrial Growth Rate

Low industrial growth rate is 1.7 % in Pakistan. Number of industries is not increasing in Pakistan. Lack of industries means less opportunities of employee.

2)            Use of Advanced Technology

A poor country uses backward techniques of production and labour intensive technologies. But when it uses the advanced technology there spread more unemployment in the country.

            3)            Mechanization of Agriculture

Due to mechanization of agriculture there is less use of labour in agricultural sector. These unemployed persons move to cities to find jobs at less wage rate. Accordingly, use of modern techniques in agricultural sector is also a further cause of unemployment and under employment.

          4)            Use of Capital Intensive Techniques

Capital intensive techniques mean use of more capital and less labour in the production process. Population is very much in Pakistan, due to use of capital intensive techniques of production they remains unemployed.

5)          Rural-Urban Migration

There is rural-urban migration due to farm mechanization. there is already unemployment in cities these workers create more unemployment and under employment in cities.

            6)            Only Particular Job

Another reason for unemployment is that the educated persons need and wish to get only particular type of jobs. If those jobs are very few then only few persons get job.

Conclusion of unemployment?

Unemployment is lack of utilization of resources and it eats up the production of the economy. It can be concluded that unemployment is inversely related to productivity of the economy.

Q.No. 2

Analyze post-covid scenario in Pakistan. How far has the pandemic of COVID-19 impacted Pakistan? What steps have been taken by the government to keep the economy of the country on track?


Post COVID-19 condition also known as “long COVID,” refers collectively to the constellation of long-term symptoms that some people experience after they have had COVID-19. People who experience post COVID-19 condition sometimes refer to themselves as “long-haulers.”

While most people who develop COVID-19 fully recover, some people develop a variety of mid- and long-term effects like fatigue, breathlessness and cognitive dysfunction (for example, confusion, forgetfulness, or a lack of mental focus and clarity). Some people also experience psychological effects as part of post COVID-19 condition.

These symptoms might persist from their initial illness or develop after their recovery. They can come and go or relapse over time.

Post COVID-19 condition can affect a person’s ability to perform daily activities such as work or household chores. 

Post COVID-19 condition is defined as the illness that occurs in people who have a history of probable or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection; usually within three months from the onset of COVID-19, with symptoms and effects that last for at least two months. The symptoms and effects of post COVID-19 condition cannot be explained by an alternative diagnosis.

The most common symptoms of post COVID-19 condition include:


Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing

Memory, concentration or sleep problems

Persistent cough

Chest pain

Trouble speaking

Muscle aches

Loss of smell or taste

Depression or anxiety


People with post COVID-19 condition, also known as “long COVID”, may have difficulty functioning in everyday life. Their condition may affect their ability to perform daily activities such as work or household chores.

Impact of COVID-19 on Situation of Pakistan:

In the first quarter of 2020, the world was faced with COVID-19 pandemic which was truly a ‘black swan’ event – an event whose probabilistic occurrence is rare, but should it occur, the event can have devastating consequences. Globally, stock markets nosedived, factories were shut down, global trade and supply chains were severely disrupted, airports were deserted, offices had stopped their operations and shops remained closed to contain the pandemic outbreak. On the December 31, 2019, first official case was reported in Wuhan China. Initially it was confined to China until first official case was recorded in Thailand on January 13, 2021. The first case of COVID-19 in Pakistan was reported on 26th February 2020. By 1st June 2020, 76,398 cases were reported with 1,621 deaths, i.e., CFR1 2.12%. Daily maximum cases in Pakistan were reported on June 14, 2020, i.e., 6,825 cases. 213 cases were the lowest official number that was reported on August 30, 2020.

Tackling Health Issues:

Unlike developed countries, Pakistan has fragile healthcare system. Facilities are insufficient to meet the population needs. There is on average one hospital bed available for over 1,680 people. The daily testing was initially very low which was improved as the infection rate increased. Provision of healthcare for non-COVID related illnesses was one of the major concerns during the first as well as second wave of pandemic which included primary healthcare services such as routine immunization and mother and child healthcare.

Tackling Education Issues:

Education is among the few sectors which was closed after the COVID-19 to contain the spread by keeping social and physical distancing. The COVID-19 pandemic has directly impacted 42 million school going children from pre-primary and primary to higher secondary and degree college levels. Low-cost private schools are unable to pay salaries to the teachers and face risk of school closures.

Role of Humanity:

Pakistanis are very philanthropic nation. Overall, nation is always responsive in the crisis situation. Therefore, the importance of philanthropy cannot be ignored. It has played a vital role in providing critical support to various organizations leading relief and recovery efforts. Various organization as well as individuals have participated in philanthropic activities.

The goodhearted activities are mostly related to Support for hospitals where facilities are inadequate e.g., testing of patients with COVID-19, ventilators, personal protective equipment and other consumables,

Ration packages

Public health messaging campaigns.


Evaluate press-government relations in present government’s regime.


Govt-Press Relationship:

For years, Government-Press relationships always remain tense because of the role of the latter as adversaries, which rulers never liked. The present government is not very different from the past when it comes to handling, tackling or controlling the media, so far.

Government of the day suppressed independent and critical voices through ‘black laws’ and used ‘government advertisements’ as weapon or tool. From the days of former president Ayub Khan to this day, this policy remain unchanged.

Pakistan’s media is passing through one of the most difficult period and near to collapse. Some TV channels have already been closed, newspapers have suspended some of their editions, over 5,000 media employees had already lost their jobs and those still working have not been paid salaries for months.

No wonder why government relationship with the media could not improve and as a result the premier was left with no other choice but to bring one change after another and each time it declined further.

This new combination of full-fledged minister and high-profile special assistant; one with a civilian background and the other with a military background have also been tested in the past but during the military rule.

However, the positive aspect of the change was the reaction from the Opposition as well as from the media and journalists, who welcomed the change and the new-look information ministry.

Media in Pakistan:

The Constitution of Pakistan Article 19 states that ‘every citizen shall have the right to freedom of speech and expression, and there shall be freedom of press, subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by the law in the interest of the glory of Islam or the integrity, security or defense of Pakistan or any part thereof, friendly relations with foreign states, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, commission of or incitement to an offence.

Government-Media Relations:

 Media has played a very effective role against the suppression of political dissent and military/civil dictators. On the other hand all successive governments in Pakistan have tried to cage the media. The Press and Publication Ordinance (PPO) was promulgated in 1962 by Gen. Ayub Khan to control and cage the media.

Later, Gen. Pervez Musharraf, who is credited with the opening of media14 also promulgated the Press Council of Pakistan Ordinance (PCPO) in 2002. Again in 2007, media was suppressed and several private channels were put off the air and some anchors of current affair programs were barred from conducting their talk shows; it was due to criticism of government’s internal/external policies, especially against Gen. Musharraf by the media.

When the electronic media boom occurred in Pakistan, there was a severe lack of qualified manpower; anchors, experts and technicians from the sate-owned PTV provided the bulk of this manpower, as many people left PTV to join financially more lucrative private media. On the other hand, as the exiting major media houses opened their own TV channels, automatically people from the print media joined these channels. The young people who became the initial bulk of reporters and journalists, joined the media after their terminals degrees in Mass Communication/Journalism or International Relations, having little or no practical experience in the electronic media.

Present State of Media:

In the absence of private electronic media, when people had to rely mostly on the state-owned PTV, the newspapers were the major source of independent information and analysis. Therefore, in 1997, there were 4,455 newspapers and periodicals in all languages with 3,912,301 copies. However, with the advent of private electronic media, the number of newspapers and periodicals has shrinked.

Future of Media in Pakistan:

Given the potential in fast growing media industry of Pakistan, it has bright future ahead. Both state-owned and private media are employing new technologies such as Direct/Digital Terrestrial Broadcasting (DTB). The Direct TV service though radio frequencies to the household antenna rather than to dishes.

In a country where educational and socio-economic development is very low, the presence of female journalists is a real achievement. Previously in the print media there were very seasoned and educated journalists, now they have also joined the electronic media. More and more young females are joining the media that can bring a better soft image for the media and the country.


Role of Pakistani media in pleading case of Indian Occupied Kashmir on international forum? Explain with logical arguments.


Media is largely deemed to have a considerable potential to influence public opinion and shape reality. Considering the notion, greater responsibility lies on media in providing information to general public for their awareness on various issues.

The brave people of Kashmir have strongly rejected India’s oppression and are determined to fight for their freedom till their last breath. Indian government has exceeded all its limits of brutalities in the held valley. Pakistani media has highlighted Kashmir issue at the best possible level at the larger global scale. Role and responsibility of media especially all kinds of media in Pakistan is manifold as they need to promote the cause of Kashmir on robust level.

Role and Responsibility of Media in Highlighting Kashmir Dispute on inter. Forum:

With mainstream media of Pakistan and India, while covering disputed issues by observing the principles of foreign policies of their respective countries. Of all contentious issues, the dispute over Kashmir was and still remains as a bone of contention between Pakistan and India. Role of Media & Interpersonal communication play a role in this discourse. Mediation and negotiation can only be possible through Media or Interpersonal Communication. Until you don’t have any consensus you cannot solve the problem. Media provides common grounds to align the issues and from it into bigger shape. Heavy viewers through newspaper can be mobilized and can bring Interpersonal communication to the ground.

International media on Kashmir:

It is the moral duty of national and international media to highlight the concerns of Kashmiri people. There is a strong need to keep the humanitarian aspect and position on all the national and international forums about Kashmir. American Media states that Pakistan is on limited success. Genocidal role in Kashmir plays vital role in degrading Muslims population. World needs to know what’s happening around in Kashmir and with the innocent Kashmiri people. Media must objectively report aggressively on human rights violation in Kashmir. Create awareness among the local public about the legal aspects of issues from UN. Report all other media to give a unified slogan. Pakistan should highlight this on a regional and International level as it is a issue of human rights and morality.

International media have not adequately explained the complex demography and diversity of the region. Muslim-majority Kashmir makes up only 15% of the state of Jammu and Kashmir, yet it comprises 53.9% of the population. The rest of the population is Hindu or Buddhist Ladakhi.

It is hypocritical when global media outlets unabashedly, yet understandably, criticize alleged majoritarianism in Modi’s India but apply a majoritarian lens to view Jammu and Kashmir.

Pakistan to raise Kashmir issue at every world forum:

Jammu and Kashmir remains one of the oldest unresolved international conflicts on the UN table.
On Dec 31, 1947, India sought the UN Security Council’s (UNSC) intervention, complaining that Pakistan was aiding the invaders who had overrun the state. For 23 years (1948-1971) the UNSC adopted 23 resolutions, established organizations and appointed various officials to deal with the issue.  

On Jan. 5, 1949, the UN Commission for India and Pakistan adopted a resolution calling for a free and impartial plebiscite to let the people of Jammu and Kashmir decide about accession to either India or Pakistan.

The stance of present government?

The government led by Shehbaz Sharif in Pakistan will establish contacts with friendly countries. “The new government will raise the Kashmir issue on all international forums,”

The federal government will work with the Chinese government to expedite the CPEC projects and further expand relations with Afghanistan.

Pakistan will not become a part of any war and will promote peace on international level, PML-N sources said, indicating broad contours of the new federal government’s foreign policy.

The new government would maintain relations with the US on the basis of equality with a “clear principle of no do more” and take Parliament into confidence on all important decisions on foreign affairs.

Sources said that Prime Minister Shehbaz Sharif would formulate guidelines on the foreign policy in consultation with the military leadership and that the new government would strengthen relations with all Muslim states and other countries.

It has been decided that Pakistan will not interfere in the internal affairs of any country nor would it become a part of any nation’s war policy.


How educational institutions were affected during the pandemic of COVID-19? How has government responded in this context? Provide some details in this context.  


The impact of COVID-19 on education in Pakistan and what effective response guidelines mean for the country’s large, diverse, federated education system.

Given the scale of operations, as well as the nature of entrenched inequities and other education problems in Pakistan, the key guiding principles should be to address these. And also, to strengthen decentralized governance as well as service delivery. 

Much like the health response to the pandemic, an effective education response requires planning for phases. At the onset of the emergency, most countries mounted a rapid response by leveraging technology to start home-schooling mechanisms that can help cope with lost instructional time. 

Children return to schools:

  • Instruction takes account of potential learning losses during time away from schools
  • Teachers and school leaders are fully supported as they work to realise these goals
  • Before coming up with potential solutions for how to improve the education system in Pakistan following COVID-19, we first need to understand the full extent of the challenges.  

Inequalities define the education problems in Pakistan:

As a result of global school closures, it has become immediately clear that the children at risk of dropping out and those who are likely to experience the most significant learning losses are the ones from marginalized backgrounds. Poverty, gender and location intersect to entrench exclusion for already-marginalized children. Existing data sources help establish the scale and scope of the challenges.

According to DHS 2019, 63% of the sampled households had a TV compared with 6% who own a radio. However, these averages hide stark inequalities. For example, in Punjab, children in households in the poorest homes (only 17% of whom have TVs in their homes) are much less likely to be able to benefit from this policy initiative than children in the richest households (95% of whom have access to television).

The numbers for Sindh are similar – 96% of households in the top quartile have televisions, 20% in the bottom quartile have televisions. Financial inequality is at the heart of education problems in Pakistan needing to be addressed.

District officials in Punjab share that internet and cable infrastructure is common and reliable in urban areas. Children further away from cities are much less likely to have access to instructional content sent through smart phones and aired on cable channels. Officials distinguish between parents who own smartphones and those who do not, a divide that is significant because many government school teachers in Punjab are relying on WhatsApp for communicating with parents.

The impact of COVID-19 on education in Pakistan:

Being in school matters for learning. Research on teaching and learning in government schools in rural Pakistan shows 10% learning gains after a year of regular schooling for children in grades 3, 4 and 5. These gains are threatened by the impact of COVID-19 on education in Pakistan and school closures.

The World Bank has outlined three scenarios of learning losses that governments should prepare for when schools reopen:

  • There is a loss of learning for all students due to school disruptions
  • There is a sudden and large increase in numbers of children for whom learning falls because of an increase in numbers of drop outs
  • Government schools in Pakistan are likely to find themselves facing the second or the third scenario. Furthermore, provinces stand at various levels of capability for testing and also delivering learning gains.

There is much higher variation in skills in higher grades (68% children in rural Punjab could read a story in local language, while only 40% in Sindh could do so)

How to improve the education system in Pakistan:

Ensuring that policy responses address inequalities requires continuity and systems that can:

  • Mobilise quickly to collect information about the situation of teachers, schools, students and communities
  • Repurpose their workforce to support new goals for coping in the crisis and managing continuity
  • Plan for changes in instructional calendars and goals

The Governance Global Practice’s role consists of ensuring a successful response to COVID-19, providing a stream of work on institutional reforms that support client countries in navigating the increased fragility, extreme pressure on resources, and rapidly evolving largescale service delivery needs. The pandemic has exposed the benefits of a stronger, flexible, and more responsive civil service which can incorporate risk management and has access to contingencies in an emergency. It has also stressed the need for sound procurement policies, systems and processes. Helping countries procure lifesaving goods and services on an emergency basis is critical to blunt the impact of COVID-19. 

Governance & Institutions COVID-19 Response Resources:

The Governance GP is providing a stream of work in support of institutional reforms for a successful response to COVID-19. This includes the creation of database of country actions, two umbrella papers, and a series of subsidiary papers on various aspects of the response (e.g. treasury management; anti-corruption measures). These are getting posted as they become available.

Governance and Institutional Issues in COVID-19 Vaccination:

Success in the roll out of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccination program requires that large numbers of people get the vaccine, quickly, equitably, and effectively. Importantly, this involves both the willing participation of the population and well-functioning government administration of the program. In this environment, the overall government vaccine program efficiency and effectiveness will depend on citizens’ trust in the vaccine efficacy as well as in government’s approach to vaccination. The purpose of this note is to summarize some of the key governance and institutional issues surrounding rapid universal vaccination.

Governance and Institutions Emergency Measures for State Continuity during COVID-19 Pandemic 

This policy note from the Governance GP identifies emergency measures for public sector continuity at national and subnational levels of government during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The note focusses on institutional and governance measures the central government can take that will make possible and complement initiatives in sectors, agencies and lower levels of government.


What are the root causes of poverty in Pakistan? How poverty can be reduced? Suggest some solutions.


Eradicating poverty is not a task of charity, it’s an act of justice and the key to unlocking an enormous human potential. Still, nearly half of the world’s population lives in poverty, and lack of food and clean water is killing thousands every single day of the year. Together, we can feed the hungry, wipe out disease and give everyone in the world a chance to prosper and live a productive and rich life.

Government efforts to reduce poverty:

Pakistan does not have any general or universal social protection system that covers all of its population. It does not even have an umbrella institution that would extend social protection and social safety nets to the poor. However, a number of programs targeted at improving governance and responsibility of public institutions to be able to better respond to the needs of the poor, assisting them economically by creating income and employment opportunities, and improving their access to basic services are being implemented by the government, NGOs, and the private sector. Each of these sectors operates in a distinct manner as discussed in this section.

Governmental reforms:

The Decentralization Plan revealed in March 2000, is an essential governance reform that targets to replace the existing highly centralized and control oriented government with a three‐tier local government system that institutes “people‐centered, rights and responsibility‐based, and service oriented” government structures. The important poverty determined facilities, such as health and education, have been transferred to district and lower local governments under this strategy. 

The Zakat and Ushr Department was established in 1980, which was based on Islamic traditions in which rich people should pay a specific amount at the rate of 2.5% on their wealth to the poor. Zakat is imposed on different assets such as saving bank accounts, fixed deposits saving certificates, mutual funds, government securities on which return is paid and life insurance policies. 

Role of NGOs and civil society:

There is a close connection between NGOs, civil society, and democracy in any country. In this connection, NGOs are part of civil society that strengthens the society through activities. This process, in turn, supports the democratic development. Civil society and nonprofit sector have appeared as a significant performer on the development aspect in Pakistan, particularly in the last two to three decades. The development of NGOs and civil society as an active development entity is widely seen as a response to the failure of the state in providing successful and well‐organized basic social services, and in its overall suppression. 

Benazir income support program (BISP):

Benazir Income Support Program is considered an important public scheme to support poor families in all parts of the country. It was launched in 2008 as a social safety net platform aiming to increase the living standards of the poor and controlling the negative effects of slow economic growth, food crisis and inflation of the poor (predominantly women). It was started with the goal of providing money to poor families, which would help them to buy basic needs of life such as food and house expenditures.

The need for improved social policy structure:

The literature on poverty and poverty alleviation in Pakistan used comprehensive approaches to measure the level of poverty and poverty alleviation. Key initiatives, including government reforms mentioned earlier, reflect this comprehensive approach. The recent findings of international institutions such as the World Bank or the UN have confirmed a relative success in the Pakistan’s recent efforts to reduce poverty. However, this comprehensive approach needs appreciation, but it also needs evaluation because there are gaps that still exist in the poverty literature in the country.

Construct community capability and institutions:

Policies to reduce poverty would have to focus on establishing the right circumstances for new industry masses to develop. The key conditions are the institutions that advocate knowledge formation, a business culture that supports entrepreneurship, institutions of higher education such as rural community colleges. As some studies (for example, proposed in the American context, the evidence from workforce development evaluations suggests that institutional collaborations, for example, the participation of business and community colleges in workforce investment initiatives can improve employment outcomes for low‐income workers.

Conclusion and future strategies:

Even if some progress has been made in terms of poverty alleviation, the government’s policies have had a marginal success, especially in rural areas. Rural areas are suffering from more poverty than urban areas; therefore, the government should give priority to rural areas to reduce poverty. The government must follow a long‐term economic plan by considering the fast‐changing demographic and economic trends. At this level, Pakistan should pay more attention to the quality of poverty instead of quantity. There are four comprehensive plans and supplementary policies that states might follow in reducing poverty, particularly in rural areas.


Evaluate current economic situation of Pakistan.


The economy of Pakistan is a low income developing economy. It is the 23rd-largest worldwide in terms of GDP based on purchasing power parity (PPP). According to a 2021 estimate, the Country has a population of 227 million people (5th-largest worldwide). 

Pakistan Faces with Economic Challenges:

Pakistan’s economic and tax problems, and considers the challenges facing Pakistan’s new coalition government.

In fragile economies, a small political shake-up can disturb a country’s entire development process, slowing down the pace of economic activity, creating a sense of insecurity in the financial sector, and diverting the nation’s progress toward economic security. All of this can result in another set of problems.

Economic and Political Background:

The coalition government faces mountainous issues: spiraling inflation, massive devaluation of the Pakistani rupee against major world currencies, increasing fuel prices, and the drying-up of foreign currency reserves. Surrounding all of these challenges is the fear of a debt default.

According to recent data from the State Bank, Pakistan has:

  • Net reserves of $8.8 billion.
  • Commercial bank reserves of $5.67 billion;
  • A current account deficit for the financial year 2021–2022 of $17.41 billion and for July 2022 of $3.13 billion; and
  • A balance of trade deficit for the financial year 2021–2022 of $44.71 billion and for July 2022 of $3.35 billion.

In July 2022, national Consumer Price Index inflation increased to 24.9% (from 21.3% in the previous month). So far this year, GDP has grown at a rate of 5.97% (against a target for 2022–2023 of 5%).

Much of Pakistan’s political history consists of decisions that were made without considering the economic consequences. Moreover, many previous governments could not succeed in the economic realm because they did not have a good team of economists who could formulate sustainable economic policies. Governments relied mostly on bankers or chartered accountants to run the Ministry of Finance and failed to put the country on a sustainable development track.

The continuing economic problems have been caused by inconsistent economic policies, pursuit of the wrong priorities, and bad governance. This is why Pakistan has not significantly developed over the last 75 years. Fiscal policies have also lacked consistency—subsequent governments changed policies to prioritize certain sectors, resulting in unstable economic conditions.

“Every year, a different person used to present budget and every year … economic policies of the government would change due to which confidence of investors and development partners was shaken.”

“In emerging market countries, tax-to-GDP ratio is around 16%, but in Pakistan it is 8.6% at the moment.”

Each new government has blamed the previous one for the bad economy, but none of them has been serious about pulling the country out of the economic crisis. Governments have joined the International Monetary Fund program to overcome fiscal problems and reduce the budget deficit, but they then spend more (and earn less), using most of their revenue to repay the national debt.

Pakistan’s Economy Slows Down While Inflation Rises Amid Terrible Floods:

Pakistan’s economy is expected to grow by only 2 percent in the current fiscal year ending June 2023. According to the World Bank’s October 2022 Pakistan Development Update: Inflation and the Poor, the slower growth will reflect damages and disruptions caused by catastrophic floods, a tight monetary stance, high inflation, and a less conducive global environment. Recovery will be gradual, with real GDP growth projected to reach 3.2 percent in fiscal year 2024.

Poverty in the hardest-hit regions will likely worsen in the context of the recent flooding. Preliminary estimates suggest that – without decisive relief and recovery efforts to help the poor – the national poverty rate may increase by 2.5 to 4 percentage points, pushing between 5.8 and 9 million people into poverty. Macroeconomic risks also remain high as Pakistan faces challenges associated with a large current account deficit, high public debt, and lower demand from its traditional export markets amid subdued global growth.


Discuss Pakistan-China relationship as partners in international Geo politics.


China–Pakistan relations are the bilateral relations between China and Pakistan. Formal relations were established in 1950 when the Dominion of Pakistan was among the first countries to end official diplomatic relations with the Republic of China (Taiwan) and recognize the People’s Republic of China (PRC) government on Mainland China. Since then, both countries have placed considerable importance on the maintenance of a special relationship.

Pakistan-China Relations in a Changing Geopolitical Environment:

A discussion of Pakistan-China relations evokes different reactions in different settings. The Western perspective essentially views the relationship based on expediency and geopolitical considerations. In Pakistan and China, on the other hand, a more euphoric estimation is found in catchy phrases like the friendship being “higher than the mountains” and “sweeter than honey”. Basically, such phrases intend to convey the ‘substance’ of the relationship, not mere rhetoric. 

Although Pakistan and China established their diplomatic relations in 1951, their formative years witnessed little interaction. Both soon became embroiled in conflicts in Kashmir and Korea and were burdened with the task of nation building. Their primary focus was on meeting the challenges of the time. Perceiving its Eastern neighbor as a perennial security threat, Pakistan joined the United State (US)-led Western alliance system against communism. This move was received with suspicion in Beijing but both countries were careful not to take any step considered inimical to each other’s interests. 

Pakistan, the Bridge on which Kissinger Walked to China:

Meanwhile, the ties with China continued to expand. Growing Chinese interest in Pakistan’s well-being was its decision to help Pakistan economically. Despite its Cultural Revolution related tumult and economic difficulties, China offered Pakistan over US$300 million (S$404.8 million) for its development plan and related projects. Quantified today, this amount runs into billions. China also continued its military assistance to Pakistan. It also helped build Pakistan’s heavy industry capacity at Taxila in the late 1960s.

All-weather Partnership:

Chinese diplomacy is nuanced and takes special care in choosing words in what is to be conveyed. While China describes its relations with various friendly countries as “strategic”, “comprehensive” or “cooperative”, the Chinese leadership uses the term “all-weather” for Pakistan to emphasise the special nature of bilateral relationship. Chinese leaders use another term of “Iron brother” for Pakistan, underscoring their confidence in the enduring nature of mutual ties.

Extending the Scope of the CPEC:

In recent years, Pakistan and China have paid special attention to their economic cooperation. Pakistan was amongst the first countries to join the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). As a pilot project of the BRI, the CPEC boasts of tangible outcomes in about six years of its life. First, it has helped Pakistan overcome its persistent energy shortfall. Pakistan was incurring a loss of about US$4 billion (S$5.38 billion) on account of this shortfall prior to the CPEC. Some major energy projects have been completed in record time and more are in the pipeline, in keeping with Pakistan’s strategy to diversify its energy mix. 

Pakistan and the US-China Conflict:

It is unfortunate that the BRI has lately become a victim of US-China rivalry. In a report to the US Congress in May 2020, the White House stated that the BRI would give China “undue political influence and military access”. The containment of China, being a declared objective of US foreign policy, has cast its shadow on the BRI and, by consequence, on the CPEC. For example, anti-China theme was dominant in the discussions at the last G-7, NATO and US-European Union (EU) Summits, and US President Joe Biden, at the G-7 Summit, framed the competition with China as “a contest between democracies and autocrats”.

Power Play in South Asia:

Alarmingly, South Asia is fast emerging as a sub-region of the larger Indo-Pacific theatre where US-China rivalry is now in full play. South Asia is home to about 25 per cent of the world’s population. Its geography and resource endowment are unique and critical to global trade and economic integration. Its people are creative and diligent; yet the South Asian nations are amongst the poorest. It is the least integrated region economically. Tensions are rife due to unresolved disputes and an inexplicable irrationality to address them. Pakistan-India tensions, mainly emanating from the Kashmir issue, have vitiated the regional security environment.


Pakistan cannot afford to lower its guard in the wake of this state of volatility and ominous developments in its neighborhood. Relations between India and Pakistan suffering from deep mistrust and suspicion have virtually obscured prospects for any durable peace in South Asia, at least in immediate future. Imperatives of regional peace and security demand a viable dispute resolution mechanism agreed bilaterally or through multilateral means to resolve their differences. 


How World Bank and IMF control economy of Pakistan? Discuss in detail.


Difference between World Bank and IMF?

The World Bank Group works with developing countries to reduce poverty and increase shared prosperity, while the International Monetary Fund serves to stabilize the international monetary system and acts as a monitor of the world’s currencies.

World Bank Group and the IMF:

Founded at the Bretton Woods conference in 1944, the two institutions have complementary missions. The World Bank Group works with developing countries to reduce poverty and increase shared prosperity, while the International Monetary Fund serves to stabilize the international monetary system and acts as a monitor of the world’s currencies. The World Bank Group provides financing, policy advice, and technical assistance to governments, and also focuses on strengthening the private sector in developing countries. The IMF keeps track of the economy globally and in member countries, lends to countries with balance of payments difficulties, and gives practical help to members. Countries must first join the IMF to be eligible to join the World Bank Group; today, each institution has 189 member countries.

Role of World Bank in the economy of Pakistan?

Its mission is to fight poverty for lasting results and to help people help themselves and their environment by providing resources, sharing knowledge, building capacity, and forging partnerships in the public and private sectors.

Pakistan and the International Monetary Fund (IMF):

Pakistan has been a member of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) since 1950.[Due to the unpredictable nature of its economy and its dependence on imports, the IMF has provided loans to Pakistan on twenty-two occasions, with its most recent being in 2019.

The IMF Takeover of Pakistan:

Many Pakistanis see the terms of the $6 billion bailout package as a hostile takeover of their economy and government.

On July 3, the International Monetary Fund approved a $6 billion bailout package to help “return sustainable growth” to Pakistan’s economy. Throughout the deal spanning 39 months, the IMF will review Pakistan’s progress on a quarterly basis. As part of the agreement, $1 billion has been released to Pakistan.

This is the 13th IMF bailout for Pakistan, with the Fund looking toward the correction of “structural imbalances” in the country. In this regard, the IMF had announced in the negotiations over the past couple of months that Islamabad would have to increase taxation in order to repay external debt and increase foreign exchange reserves.

IMF Executive Board Completes the Combined Seventh, and Eighth Reviews of the Extended Fund Facility for Pakistan:

  • The Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) completed the combined seventh and eighth reviews under the Extended Fund Facility (EFF) for Pakistan, allowing the authorities to draw the equivalent of SDR 894 million (about US$1.1 billion).
  • The authorities have taken important measures to address Pakistan’s worsened fiscal and external positions resulting from accommodative policies in FY22 and spillovers from the war in Ukraine, and which have placed significant pressure on the rupee and foreign reserves.
  • The immediate priority is to continue the steadfast implementation of the recently approved budget for FY23, adherence to a market-determined exchange rate, and pursuit of a proactive and prudent monetary policy. It is also important to continue to expand social safety to protect the most vulnerable and accelerate structural reforms.


How do you agree that China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) will be helpful to boost the economy of Pakistan? Discuss in details.


The CPEC is a 3,000-kilometre network of roads, railways, and pipelines to transport oil and gas from Gwadar Port to Kashgar city, northwestern China’s Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, China Daily reports. China and Pakistan have agreed to build the One Belt One Road project more commonly known as China-Pakistan Economic Corridor is expected to bring about both peace and prosperity in South Asia. This corridor will link Kashgar in north-western China to Pakistan’s Gwadar port on the Arabian Sea near the border with Iran via roads, railways, and pipelines.

There are many internal and external challenges for the Pakistan government to implement this multi-dollars project. However, it is a game-changer project which will transforn1 the fate of Pakistan and will help Pakistan modernize. It will improve the economy and trade, enhance regional connectivity, overcome energy crises, develop infrastructure and establish people-to-people contacts in both countries.

Development of Gwadar:

The project links China’s strategy to develop its western region with Pakistan’s focus on boosting its economy, including the infrastructure construction of Gwadar Port, together with some energy cooperation and investment programs. It also involves road and railway construction including an upgrade of the 1300-km Karakoram Highway, the highest paved international road in the world which connects China and Pakistan across the Karakoram Mountains.

Previous project: Silk Road:

With the support of China, Pakistan has gained significant importance not only in the region but the entire world. In recent years, both China and Pakistan have been making concerted efforts to
revive the historic Silk Road which is one of the oldest known trade routes in the world and will provide a route for trade from Kashgar (China) to Gwadar (Pakistan). China-Pakistan Economic Corridor plan will help Pakistan to become one of the most strategically important countries in the region.China’s increasing economic engagement with Pakistan should be seen in the context of Beijing’s “efforts to counter the US efforts to deepen alliances around the Asia-Pacific region.”

Projects Under CPEC:

The “One Belt One Road” concept has international strategic importance. The One Belt One Road initiative covers countries and regions with a total population of 4.4 billion and a total economic the volume of US$ 21 trillion, 63 % and 29 %, respectively of the World. According to the assessment of the Corridor, the plan is involved in laying the foundation for regional cooperation, improving economic growth, offering trade diversifications, investing in transportation, mining, and energy sectors, and creating political flexibility.

The Concept of One Belt and One Road:

Recognizing the fact that regional integration is an inevitable measure to meet the demands of the economically globalized world, the notion of the Silk Road was reformulated and rephrased by China in 2013 under ‘one road, one belt’ initiative, i.e., economic belt along the Silk Road and the Maritime Silk Road.

Pakistan is a significant partner for China as it links China to Central Asia, the Southern Asian region, and the Middle East, and its major deep-sea port Gwadar offers direct access to the Indian Ocean and beyond. Both countries have been working on enhancing their coordination and strategic communication to safeguard common interests. This corridor will also be helpful in creating regional stability in South Asia.

Different Routes in CPEC:

After completion of the corridor, it will function as a primary gateway for trade between China and Africa, and the Middle East. It is expected that this corridor will help cut the 12,000-kilometre the route which Middle East oil supplies must now take to reach the Chinese ports. This project will run through most of Pakistan starting from Gwadar in Balochistan and ending in Kashgar in western China while passing through parts of Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces, and Gilgit-Baltistan in northern Pakistan to reach the Khunjrab Pass and beyond to China.

Geostrategic location of Gwadar:

The eastern alignment of the corridor originates from Gwadar, travels parallel to the Makran Coastal Highway eastwards (towards Karachi), and then after passing through parts of interior Sindh, and southern, central, and northern regions of Punjab, it reaches Islamabad. From Islamabad, it extends to Haripur, Abbottabad, and Mansehra districts of the relatively peaceful Hazara Division in KP this part of the corridor will also run through Muzaffarabad, the capital of Azad Jammu and Kashmir – and reaches Khunjrab after passing through Diamer and Gilgit areas in northern Pakistan.

Following are the challenges for Pakistan in fulfillment of CPEC:

Challenges for Pakistan:

Pakistan faces several challenges in the implementation of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) project. These challenges can be identified as external and internal. The Vice Director General of Policy Research Office at the International Department of the Central Committee Communist Party of China, Dr. Luan Jianzhang is of the view that political unrest, the security situation, and administrative issues are some of the greatest challenges in the way of successful completion of the corridor.

Internal Challenges for Pakistan:

In Pakistan, some political parties like ANP, Baloch nationalists, PkMAP raised serious objections to the CPEC project. Even PTI and JUI (F) showed inclinations to climb the bandwagon of anti-CPEC forces. Objections were being raised despite assurances by the government that this project will provide equal opportunities to all the provinces.

Security concerns have been the most critical challenge to the CPEC and both Pakistan and China have been trying to meet these. An arc of militancy stretches from Xinjiang to Gwadar consisting of groups like the East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM), Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LeJ), Daesh (ISIS), Balochistan Liberation Army (BLA), Balochistan Liberation Front (BLF) and the militant wings of some political parties. Most of these groups may not have an enn1ity with China itself but rather intend to attack the Chinese interests like the  CPEC as a means to deal with the Pakistani state.

External Challenges for Pakistan:

As an economic enterprise, for the CPEC, the greatest challenge comes from competitors. The most significant is the Iranian port of Chabahar. India intends to invest significantly ($85 million) in the development of Chabahar, which lies a few miles away from Gwadar and is part of its efforts for access to land-locked Afghanistan and Central Asia while bypassing rival Pakistan. Chabahar will effectively be a way station for energy imports coming from the Gulf region and destined for Afghanistan and Central Asia.

Counter Indian Influence:

Indian involvement in Chabahar is linked to Pakistan’s refusal to allow India access to transit to and from Afghanistan, so India sees Iran as the next-best option. If Pakistan extends transit facilities to India, and then India may not be interested in building up Chabahar. India is also not happy with the handing over of Gwadar Port development and its operations to China.


CPEC is not only the name of road, port, and railway system but a multi-dollars mega project which will bring peace and prosperity in all the provinces of Pakistan. The chairman of the Gwadar port, Dostain Khan Jamaldini said that the CPEC would not only benefit Balochistan but also prove beneficial for the country’s three other provinces.


How Pakistan can overcome the ever increasing gap between demand and supply of electricity? Suggest some viable solutions to solve the issue.


Pakistan has been in severe energy crises since the year 2004. Major reasons behind energy crises are lack of use of modeling tools in power planning and policy development, dependence on imported energy sources and poor governance. In this paper, electricity demand forecasting for Pakistan up to the year 2030 and a proposal for utilizing domestic energy resources, such as, coal, natural gas, and solar resources available in Baluchistan province of Pakistan for the electricity needs of the country are presented. Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) software is used to develop energy demand model for Pakistan that forecasts energy demand under two scenarios, i.e. baseline scenario and energy conservation scenario for the period from 2018 to 2030.

What is peak demand?

While electricity rates are dependent on many factors, one is the amount of electricity consumption and when. Peak demand is the highest amount of energy used during a 15 to 30 minute period of time during the month, and determines a large part of how your rate per-month is established.

Energy demand and production forecasting in Pakistan:

Pakistan is facing electricity shortage of over 5000 MW and facing multiple challenges for harnessing the indigenous energy assets. Energy security is one of the most important subjects that needs to be addressed by developing countries including Pakistan. One of the main factors behind prosperity of a nation is accessibility of the energy on an appropriate tariff. Long-term electricity planning has gained popularity for providing sustainable solutions to the electricity network, operation, and energy resource management.

Pakistan’s energy crisis is mainly due to two issues that were not properly taken care of, namely:

1. Inadequate analysis of domestic energy resources for power generation. Pakistan has enough energy resources including wind, solar, geothermal, tidal, coal, oil, and natural gas that can alleviate the ongoing energy crises of the country.

2. Lack of effective energy planning, poor policy formulation, and ignorance of energy modeling tools, adverse governance issues, and large dependency on imported fossil fuels create a large gap between energy demand and supply.

The country is not only deficient in meeting energy demand but also lacks in harnessing domestic energy assets, which can provide the solution of energy crises . However, stability in the power sector of Pakistan can be achieved through the realistic power policies, better guidelines, and utilization of domestic energy assets along with the promotion of the newer power harnessing technologies.

Energy demand forecast:

LEAP is an energy modeling tool that we used in the estimation of 2030 energy demand for Pakistan. We forecasted sector wise demand for future power requirement analyzed under the baseline and energy conservation scenarios. Major sectors comprise agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial, and other (service provider).

Alternate Ways to Overcome Energy Crisis in Pakistan

Energy in all forms is closely linked to economic prosperity of the county. Energy demand is increasing day by day because of urbanization, climate change and global warming.

Pakistan is energy deficient country because of its inadequate energy power supply mix, rising energy gap between supply & demand, lack of energy efficiency legislation and its implementation.


The first and foremost task is to save and conserve energy in domestic, commercial, industrial and institutional facilities. Every facility is trying to conserve energy but process is too slow because of the lack of the energy conservation legislation and its implementation.

The energy saving activities to be adopted in domestic, industrial, commercial and institutional facilities are as follows,

  • Insulation of buildings roofs, walls, pipes and ducts.
  • Use of glazed glass at building facades
  • Use of energy efficient materials in buildings
  • Use of high efficiency motors, pumps and controllers
  • Use of Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs)
  • Replacement of conventional heating & cooling by solar water heating & cooling



Solar Thermal is the process of generating heating and cooling through solar radiations. Solar Water Heaters are very economical and feasible option for use in domestic, commercial, industrial and institutional facilities.


Solar Photovoltaic is the process of generation of electricity through solar radiations. It is commonly called as PV. PV components include Solar Panels, Inverters and Charge Controllers, Deep Cycle Batteries, Mountings, cables and accessories. Solar PV solution is not affordable and feasible as the current price of PV solution is $8 per watt. This high cost is because of 40% duties on PV Components. The recent news in media about zero duty shows that Government has reduced duties to zero but one time zero duty needs more clarification by the Government.


Solar and LED lighting is really a best energy saving option. The barrier in its growth is the high percentage of duties on import of Solar and LED lights. If the duties are made zero, this sector can grow at faster pace. It is just an estimate that 400 watts of conventional search light can be replaced by 80 Watt LED search Lights.


Wind Power is relatively a cheaper alternate energy solution and Pakistan has great potential in wind power. The barrier in its growth is the lengthy process of acquisition of land and coordination issues of wind power developers with the Government Institutions.


How can Pakistani media play its role in highlighting charming beauty of Pakistan? Suggest some steps to improve tourism in the country.


When India and China can earn more than $20 billion from tourism and various European countries like Switzerland, France, the UK, Italy and Greece can fetch several hundred billion dollars from tourism, why cannot Pakistan, a country blessed with enviable natural beauty? Recently, Prime Minister Imran Khan said if a country like Switzerland can earn several billion dollars from tourism, Pakistan can certainly take meaningful steps to attract tourists. But, merely by passing statements on transforming Pakistan as a hub of tourism will not make sense unless the government takes practical steps to create a culture of tourism which would require a mindset of local people, tour operators, hotels and officials attached with the ministry of tourism.

When one talks about the culture of tourism it means four major requirements.

First, the attitude and behavior of those who are supposed to provide guidance and facilities to tourists.

Second, adherence to hygiene and cleanliness at restaurants, eateries, washrooms and hotels at tourist spots. Unfortunately, with a few exceptions, there is absence of hygiene and clean environment for tourists, which creates a very bad impression for both local and foreign tourists.

Third, availability of affordable accommodation and food is essential for creating a culture of tourism in Pakistan. During summer and winter tourist seasons, there is no check on the part of concerned authorities to prevent hotel owners who take advantage of the situation and charge excessive amount from tourists.

Role of Media to promote tourism:

The impact of media on Pakistan’s conventional social system can better be understood by analyzing it in context of social institutions. Family is the basic unit of any society. In Pakistan the institution of family has been very strong. The extended family system was the most popular in the past.

Mass media brought about a change in this domain replacing joint families with nuclear and neo-local families. Another noteworthy social change facilitated by mass media is the rising incidence of divorce. In the past, it was considered a social anathema but has now become more acceptable in society. This is a good example that demonstrates how mass media has altered the family norms and values in the last ten years or so.

Absence of tourism culture in Pakistan:

Finally, the absence of tourism culture in Pakistan has much to do with corruption and inefficiency on the part of tourism departments in various provinces of the country who are either irresponsible in their duties or lack proper training on providing maximum facilities to tourists at affordable prices. It is a pity that unlike India, China, the UAE and Sri Lanka, where there is a culture of tourism, one can observe the absence of proper work ethics and pursuance of a professional approach to attract foreign tourists.

The major tourist destinations like Swat, Naran, Gilgit, Hunza and Skardu must be monitored by the respective tourist departments and ministries that tourists visiting such places are provided with best facilities at affordable prices. Acts of cheating and overcharging for accommodation and meals must be eradicated. It seems, ‘tourist mafias’ in collaboration with officials deny tourists opportunities to enjoy their holidays.

Inhuman travel through rocks:

Second, it is a matter of shame that the government of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa has utterly failed to improve tourist infrastructure including roads. For instance, Naran is a major tourist spot and tourists who visit that place make sure that they also go to the legendry lake Saiful Muluk. But, it is shocking that there is no road from Naran to that lake and tourists are left at the mercy of ‘jeep mafia’ who subvert efforts to construct a good quality road.

Ensure self-development:

Media in Pakistan “When complaints are freely heard, deeply considered, and speedily reformed, then is the utmost bound of civil liberty attained, that wise men look for.”– Milton No power on this earth can block the truth as it is God who, being the truth Himself, guards it. Nowhere in history could the truth ever be suppressed, it always revealed itself in some other form and with dangerous consequences. British philosopher John Stuart Mill underlined the need for free speech mainly for three reasons. He believed that freedom to read or write is an important element to expose and reveal the truth, to ensure self-development and self-fulfillment of citizens and to help ensure participation of the citizens in a democracy.


Media has made almost every Pakistani citizen surrender his respect for traditional values, conventional ethics and religious morals and practices. Meetings with elders, attending of traditional festivals and congregational prayers have almost completely lost their importance. They are substituted by texting on mobile phones, playing video games, watching movies and socializing over social media networks.


Evaluate the role of media in creating awareness about vaccination against different diseases. How far Pakistani media have been successful in persuading people to vaccinate? Explain with appropriate examples.

On 30 January 2020, the World Health Organization  declared the Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak to be a global public health emergency. Coronaviruses are a microbial source of infections in individuals, with a spectrum of activity associated with the common cold, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). The outbreak of a pneumonia of unknown cause was observed in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 where a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was isolated from patients in January 2020. This outbreak and the associated strict isolation attracted global attention due to health communication by the media networks. The movement of people along the road passage from Iran and air travel from other countries brought the virus to Pakistan, which confirmed its first case on 26 February 2020. The number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in Pakistan was 523,011 on 19 January 2021, with 11,055 confirmed deaths.

The media has already been serving as an important source of health education and promotion in our societies for decades.  Health-related communication campaigns in the media have aimed to change the health behavior of the population by creating awareness and promoting prevention, such as hand hygiene practices and immunization coverage. Health campaigns are categorized into typical and digital technology use campaigns. Typical communication involves the use of different media channels (e.g., print media or electronic media), whereas digital technology communication may involve the use of mobile phones and internet web search engines.

The COVID-19 related awareness campaign in Pakistan emphasized on the symptoms of the disease, preventive measures, and the importance of physical distancing. Symptoms of a coronavirus disease may appear within 2–14 days after viral exposure. The initial symptoms may include fever, cough, headache, sore throat, shortness of breath, and rapid heartbeat, with complications of pneumonia and organ failure. Treatment options are only supportive because no targeted anti-viral therapeutics are available at present.

The elderly, persons with diabetes, and immune-compromised people are the most vulnerable groups when infected with COVID-19. The general public has lack of access to vaccination against COVID-19 as it is not yet available in Pakistan. Protective measures adopted by the general population should include frequent handwashing, use of hand sanitizers, wearing face mask, avoiding close contact with sick people, and physical distancing practices.

Correct perception of population is essential to ensure good preventive practices for control of corona pandemic. Population based media exposures reported positive or prevent negative changes in behaviors. Health-related awareness campaigns regarding polio vaccination, family planning, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome prevention were successful in Pakistan in creating awareness among masses and encouraging people to use healthy behaviors. Given this backdrop, there is an urgent need to investigate the role of media as an awareness creator regarding COVID-19 signs, symptoms and protective measures to prevent its transmission.

  • In simple words, it is far, far better for everyone to get the shot than not to get it, especially when multiple variants of coronavirus are spreading rapidly.
  • It is far more likely you will contract COVID-19 without the vaccine than experience the side effects with it, especially if an epidemic is breaking out in your area.
  • But these rational explanations aside, convincing Pakistan to get vaccinated is already a challenging task.

Making it mandatory:

In a country of 220 million, where at least 70 million people (or 70% of the adult population) must be inoculated to achieve some sort of herd immunity, vaccine hesitancy was already at extremely worrying levels even before the AstraZeneca vaccine made it to Pakistan under the COVAX initiative.

Despite having secured 18.7 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines, the government faced such low registration rates for the vaccines that it eventually opened walk-in vaccination facilities for nearly all eligible citizens and made it mandatory for certain groups to get vaccinated. Punjab’s Coronavirus Advisory Group Chief Dr Asad Aslam told Geo News earlier in May that people were not taking enough interest in getting vaccinated.

Campaign going well:
When asked to comment, Federal Information Minister Fawad Chaudhry defended the government’s overall strategy and told this scribe that the government has been disseminating “timely, credible and scientifically correct information through all conventional and unconventional means of communications to sensitise the masses.”

“A comprehensive communications strategy is being rolled out jointly by the National Command and Operation Centre (NCOC), ministries of health and information as well as the ISPR and the federating units, keeping in view the ongoing trends and phases of the vaccination drive,” he added.

Media awareness intervention:

This study examines the role of the media in shaping perceptions of COVID-19 among the general population visiting a community pharmacy in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The first response from participants was completed during the 1st week of February 2020 before any confirmed cases were reported in Pakistan. Media awareness and prevention campaigns for COVID-19 began just after the first case was detected on 26 February 2020 and peaked in March 2020 in Pakistan. The country’s lockdown has also created curiosity related to COVID-19 among the general public. The National Disaster Management Authority, Pakistan Telecommunication Authority as well as electronic and print media continuously provided warning and precautionary communication.

Health education and preventive intervention by the media including comprehensive education about the current spread of the coronavirus, transmission routes or symptoms of COVID-19 together with screening and preventive measures (individual measures to protect against infections, hygiene regulation, dealing with mental stress during the COVID-19 lockdown), that needed to be taken to stay healthy and safe from COVID-19. A second response was collected from each participant during the last week of March, with an 8-week interval between the two surveys.


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