Exam preparation of Print Media Part-II english 9262/5626

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Important Questions with Answers prepared by Faiza Gul, frilmi.com (Errors and omissions acceptable) Disclaimer: All Questions and Answers are Based on self assessment and It is only Guess material.

Question no.1:   Discuss the role of administration in functioning of newspaper.

A newspaper is, of all modern private institutions, most comprehensive in function and complicated in principle. Although the existence of a newspaper is subject to economic problems right from the first issue until it comes have a very large circulation, primarily it is a vehicle for

In modern businesses, the annual amount spent on advertising in general, and newspapers in particular, runs into millions of rupees. It is only recently that Radio and T.V. commercials have started sharing a good part of this amount. It is the existence of this colossal revenue which makes possible the costly task of collecting and transmitting the news of the world from all places to all other places at once.

Newspaper organization has various departments taking care of a variety of tasks. Each department has a specified function with several staff taking care of each function. Various departments that are a part of a newspaper organization include:

Functions of these departments in brief


The editorial department forms the backbone of any newspaper organization. As the name implies, this department is the one responsible for content creation in any newspaper establishment. The main responsibilities of this department is the gathering of news, selecting which news and features get to be published in the paper, editing the news and features that have been selected for publication and then laying them out for print.  Following chart represents the hierarchy of the department followed by a brief description of the functions performed by various staff members.

Publisher- The publisher is responsible for all of the operations of the newspaper, both editorial and business. The main job of the publisher is to see that the newspaper remains financially healthy.

Editor- The editor is responsible for all of the editorial content of the newspaper and for the budgets and money spent by the editorial side of the newspaper. Often in smaller papers, the publisher and editor is the same person.

Editorial page editor- The editorial page editor is responsible for the editorial page and the “op-ed” page of the newspaper. These pages are where the newspaper’s editorials are printed as well as letters to the editor, columns by syndicated columnists and guest columns by local people.

Managing editor- This is the person who is in charge of the day-to-day production of the newspaper.

City Editor- The city editor -sometimes called the metro editor -is in charge of the news coverage of the area in which the newspaper is located. The city editor usually has the largest staff and assigns tasks to most of the local news reporters.

News reporter- A news reporter gathers information about news stories in the local area. There are generally two kinds of reporters: i) a beat reporter, and ii) a general assignment reporter.

A beat reporter covers the same subject or location all the time. The subject is generally of interest to the reporter. Various beats include legal reporting, parliamentary reporting, political reporting, etc. Ageneral assignment reporter, on the other hand, covers any story assigned by the city editor or assistant city editor.

Chief copy editor- The chief copy editor is in charge of the newspaper’s copydesk. The people on the copydesk read news stories (and sometimes stories from other sections) to make sure they are written according to the newspaper’s standards. The chief copy editor makes final decisions about the copy and is in charge of the staffing of the desk.

Copy editor- A copy editor is specially trained to read the stories that others have written and make sure they conform with the rules of grammar and style. A copy editor also writes headlines and performs other duties that help produce the newspaper every day.

Photo editor- A photo editor is not a photographer, although it is often the case that the photo editor is a former photographer. This editor assigns photographers and helps select the photos that the newspaper prints.

Graphics editor- The graphics editor is the head of the graphics department, sometimes called the “art department.” This editor is in charge of all of the graphics and illustrations produced for the newspaper.

Graphics reporter- A graphics reporter researches and designs informational graphics that support news stories the paper. A graphics reporter is an expert in graphic forms and also must be able to local information that can be used to build graphics.


As an integral mass media vehicle, newspapers are vehicles of advertising meant to appeal to their readers. As such, the advertising department is the one which is critical because it gets in the revenue necessary to sustain the newspaper.Getting in revenue through advertising for the newspaper happens through various means.


The circulation department takes care of everything after the newspaper is printed. This includes delivering the publication to homes through their own or third-party carriers, to the post office to be mailed into homes, as well as to newsstands, vending machines, and other places it’s circulated.

Question no.2: Explain different subbing symbols with appropriate examples.

What Are” Captions”?

 Captions are the”audio”for deaf and delicate of hearing humans.” Captions “is largely another expression for” words, “and they are generally deposited at the bottom portion of the display screen. Captions permit deaf and tough of hearing mortal beings to seize and witness the speak the equal manner as hankering to mortal beings do.

What Are” Types”?

 Feathers range harmonious with how the captions feel, how they may be penetrated, and what information is furnished. those encompass unrestricted captions, mottoes, and mottoes for the deaf and tough of hail.

  • . The caption for a figure appears below the visual; for a table, over. It’s easy to get this wrong accidentally.
  •  Generally, boldface or emphasize the word” Figure “or” Table “and the associated number in the caption, also present the caption in plain textbook with only the original letter of the caption and any proper names in the caption subsidized.
  •  Always concentrate on absoluteness and concreteness as you caption. Air inflow “is far lower illuminating and accurate than the following
  •  Don’t be hysterical to use lengthy figure and table captions better that confusing or deficient bones.
  •  Still, but you recreated or acclimated it, it’s standard to include the words” Acclimated from”or”After” followed by the author’s name and a citation at the end of the caption, If your figure or table is basically the same as or grounded on another author’s.

 Always cite the figure or table if it or its data came from a source, using the same citation style that you have used throughout the paper.  what information is furnished. those encompass unrestricted captions, mottoes, and mottoes for the deaf and tough of hail.

  • In papers written for classes and submitted to journals, each office and determine need to encompass a caption. The most logical place for the citation to appear is at the end of the caption. This primer for a thorough discussion of rules for source citation.

 Entitling Types, Styles

. During the late 1950s, only open-captioning was available. It wasn’t until 20 times latterly that unrestricted-captioning made its first debut. Several times latterly, other captioning ways followed.

 Closed Captions

 These are hidden at the 21st line of the perpendicular blanking c language (VBI) of a videotape signal and are made seen through a decoder on the time of viewing. they are generally white letters boxed in a black box.


 Subtitles are generally white or heroic letters with a black hem or drop shadow. some are constantly seen, just like the” open captions “of DCMP stir film land. Others, like the bones on DVD and the net, are displayed using the medium’s menu volition.

Question no.3: Define caption and write down its do’s and don’t. Also explain different kinds of caption.


Professional norms of readability, delicacy, and absoluteness in caption jotting ought to be as high or better than any other jotting that appears in a companion. A inadequately written caption that’s uninformative or worse, misleading, can dwindle the impact of an stupendous picture and undermine its credibility as a journalism.

Print captions are frequently the first factors of an e-book to be examined. Writing image captions is a vital part of the information shooter’s exertion. A snap caption has to offer the anthology introductory data had to understand a picture and its applicability to the information. It should be written in a harmonious, terse layout that lets information agencies move the picture to bespeak right now.

Writing captions

Alt textual content, and description fields for snaps in WordPress are the outside neglected and underutilized capabilities that could ameliorate your content and bring redundant mortal beings to your point. Learn how to use them to produce better consumer reports and lesser seductive and compelling content.. In papers written for classes and submitted to journals, each office and determine need to encompass a caption.

  •  authentically pick out the people and locales that appear inside the image. expert titles ought to be covered as well as the formal name of the vicinity. SPELL NAMES rightly (take a look at the spellings inside the composition if vital). For prints of a couple of people, identifications generally go from left to right. within the case of large companies, identifications of the most effective extremely good people can be needed, and occasionally no identifications are needed at all. Your book must set up a preferred for its shutterbugs.
  •  include the date and day the snap come taken. This is essential information for a news e-book. The redundant ultramodern a picture is, the higher. However, the caption needs to make it clear that it’s a “report snap, If an library print or image taken before the occasion is illustrated is used.”
  •  give a many environment or background to the anthology so he or she’ll be suitable to fete the information cost of the picture. A judgment or is generally enough.
  •  Print captions have to be written in whole rulings and inside the gift anxious. the prevailing excited gives the snap an experience of proximity. while it isn’t logical to jot down the entire caption within the gift stressful, the first judgment is written inside the gift disturbing and the posterior rulings aren’t.
  •  Be quick. utmost captions are one or two brief, declarative rulings. some can also increase to a 3rd judgment if complex contextual information is demanded to explain the snap fully.

Subtitles for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (SDH), on the other hand, assume the viewer cannot understand the language and cannot hear. Essentially, combine the information conveyed by closed captions and subtitles – including critical non-speech elements.

Question no.4:   Differentiate between news agency and syndicate service.

News agency, also called press agency, press association, wire service, or news service, organization that gathers, writes, and distributes news from around a nation or the world to newspapers, periodicals, radio and television broadcasters, government agencies, and other users. It does not generally publish news itself but supplies news to its subscribers, who, by sharing costs, obtain services they could not otherwise afford. All the mass media depend upon the agencies for the bulk of the news, even including those few that have extensive news-gathering resources of their own.

The news agency has a variety of forms. In some large cities, newspapers and radio and television stations have joined forces to obtain routine coverage of news about the police, courts, government offices, and the like. National agencies have extended the area of such coverage by gathering and distributing stock-market quotations, sports results, and election reports. A few agencies have extended their service to include worldwide news. The service has grown to include news interpretation, special columns, news photographs, audiotape recordings for radio broadcast, and often videotape or motion-picture film for television news reports. Many agencies are cooperatives, and the trend has been in that direction since World War II. Under this form of organization, individual members provide news from their own circulation areas to an agency pool for general use. In major news centres the national and worldwide agencies have their own reporters to cover important events, and they maintain offices to facilitate distribution of their service.

The major press associations in the United States have expanded their service to include entertainment features, and some feature syndicates provide straight news coverage as a part of their service. The Newspaper Enterprise Association distributes both news and features in the United States.

Despite the plethora of news services, most news printed and broadcast throughout the world each day comes from only a few major agencies, the three largest of which are the Associated Press in the United States, Reuters in Great Britain, and Agence France-Presse in France. Only these and a few others have the financial resources to station experienced reporters in all areas of the world where news develops regularly (in order to ensure access to well-organized transmission facilities) or to send them wherever news develops unexpectedly. These agencies are also equipped to distribute the service almost instantaneously.

The world agencies have established a variety of relationships with other agencies and with individual news media. Most of them purchase the news services of national or local agencies to supplement news gathered by their own staff representatives at key points. Reuters, like the Agence France-Presse, supplies a worldwide news file to be distributed by some national agencies along with their domestic news reports. The American services more often contract to deliver their service directly to individual users abroad.

News agencies in communist countries had close ties to their national governments. Each major communist country had its own national news service, and each news service was officially controlled, usually by the minister of information. TASS, the Soviet news agency, was the principal source of world news for the Soviet Union and its allies; it also made Soviet Communist Party policy known. Communist states outside the Soviet sphere, e.g., China and Yugoslavia, had their own state news services, which were controlled in similar fashion. China’s Hsinhua, or New China News Agency, was the largest remaining news agency in a communist country by the late 20th century.

For brief coverage of the major world news agencies, see Agence France-PresseAssociated PressKyōdō tsūshinshaPress Trust of IndiaReutersTASSUnited Press International. For treatment of newspaper feature syndicates, see newspaper syndicate.            

Newspaper syndicate, also called Press Syndicate, or Feature Syndicate, agency that sells to newspapers and other media special writing and artwork, often written by a noted journalist or eminent authority or drawn by a well-known cartoonist, that cannot be classified as spot coverage of the news. Its fundamental service is to spread the cost of expensive features among as many newspapers (subscribers) as possible.

 Many writers, photographers, and graphic artists syndicate their own materials. Some newspapers with especially strong resources syndicate their own coverage, including news, to papers outside their own communities. Examples include the New York Times, with major resources in every news department, and the defunct Chicago Daily News, which was known for its foreign coverage. Papers sometimes syndicate as a team with another newspaper—e.g., the Los Angeles TimesWashington Post syndicate.

During World War I, Harmsworth served with distinction as air minister. After the war he was made a viscount (1919) and returned to private life. His brother’s death in 1922 made him heir to the entire group of newspapers and magazines, which he managed with mixed results. During the 1930s he favoured British rearmament, sympathized with Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini, and wrote several books on foreign affairs. His charitable activities met with greater favour. Asked in 1940 by Lord Beaverbrook to undertake a mission to the United States, he suffered a breakdown in health and died in Bermuda, where he had gone to recover.

Question no.5: Define functions of managerial and editorial staff of a magazine. What function are performed by the editorial staff of a magazine.


The editorial managers many a times also work with human resource department to recruit or hire editors. They may conduct interviews and analyze editors based upon their educational qualification, experience, and area of expertise. As a manager, the editorial managers are also responsible of supervising employees under them and also have to see to it that they work according to the organizational norms. The editorial manager also sees to it that all the employees follow the rules and regulations as described by the organization as well as the government. The editorial manager must also ensure that all the allocated work is undertaken perfectly and within the allocated time.

Educational Qualification of an Editorial Manager

The editorial manager post is one of the high level posts and requires good educational background. According to various employers, the basic qualification for the post of an editorial manager is a bachelor’s degree in journalism or communication and mass media. Along with this

Proficiency in English is one of the major skills of an editorial manager. However, along with this, he or she is also expected to possess the following skills:

  • Outstanding verbal and written communication skills
  • Expert in organizational and management skills
  • Creative and confident
  • Expert research and accuracy skills
  • Expert computer operating skills
  • Expert in managing time and completing the allocated work within the given time frame

Function of an Editorial Manager of magazine

The function of an editorial manager of magazine includes supervising and allotting jobs to the editors, writers, and reporters. Along with supervising, they are also responsible for undertaking the following duties:

  • Manage the overall editorial production schedule
  • Ensure the production of optimal editorial and marketing content
  • Manage and execute the entire editorial process standards and guidelines
  • Actively research the editorial stories through internal and external sources
  • Supervise the staff and ensure that the allocated work is completed within the given time
  • Recruit new editors by interviewing them

role of each member of the editorial staff?

Each member of the editorial team is important. While definitions of each role can vary from publication to publication, and roles can overlap especially within small teams here are some general features of each position.

Editorial director: The role of an editorial director typically implies a form of supervision over several titles or editorial products that may include newsletters, websites, and sometimes events. It depends on the publication, but often they are less involved with the day-to-day work and are there to provide editorial direction and advice, working with other executives and senior management to develop a vision that encompasses all of the publisher’s magazines.

Editor-in-chief: The editor-in-chief (also known as executive editor) is essentially responsible for the editorial direction of the magazine and content procurement. He or she works from the vision set by the editorial director to create the tone and editorial direction of the individual publication. The editor-in-chief is responsible for ensuring every issue is consistent with the vision and policies of the publication. He or she may travel or make appearances more often than the rest of the team as a representative of the magazine. For smaller magazines, he or she may also have to handle the day-to-day production.

Managing editor: The managing editor supports the editor-in-chief by being in the office day-to-day to manage the rest of the team and ensure deadlines are met. He or she also works with the design team to manage the production of each issue.

Senior, associate, and assistant editors: Most editors at the beginning of their careers join a publication as an assistant editor before moving up to associate and then senior. These editors do most of the writing. As more experienced professionals, senior editors often help the rest of the team develop story ideas.

Copyeditor: Copyeditors are excellent in grammar and spelling and have a passion for attention to details. Copyeditors proofread all stories before publication. They may also serve as ​ fact-checkers and reshape headlines or leads.

Q. 6  Highlight a brief history of media laws. Also explain the need and importance of media laws in your own words. / differentiate between lible and salender with appropriate examples.      

On December 2, 1766, the Swedish parliament passed legislation that is now recognized as the world’s first law supporting the freedom of the press and freedom of information. Narrowly, the Freedom of the Press Act abolished the Swedish government’s role as a censor of printed matter, and it allowed for the official activities of the government to be made public. More broadly, the law codified the principle which has since become a cornerstone of democracies throughout the world that individual citizens of a state should be able to express and disseminate information without fear of reprisal.

Media law has been a much debated topic ever since the first U.S. media industry laws appeared in the early 1900s. The contention surrounding media law largely stems from the liberties guaranteed under the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which includes the freedom of the press.

Generally speaking, media law comprises two areas: telecommunications law, which regulates radio and television broadcasts, and print law, which addresses publications such as books, newspapers, and magazines. Despite differences between the two areas, many media laws involve First Amendment protections. This section explores several areas of media law: privacy, libel and slander, copyright and intellectual property, freedom of information, and equal time and coverage.

In 1974, Congress passed the Privacy Act, which “protects records that can be retrieved by personal identifiers such as a name, social security number, or other identifying number or symbol (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services).” This act also regulates how agencies can collect, store, and use information and requires agencies to tell individuals when they are collecting information about them. Designed to ensure that all First Amendment guarantees remain honored, the act requires all public and private agencies to function within its boundaries.

Libel and Slander

Media outlets also must be wary of committing acts of defamation. These occur when false statements about an individual are printed, broadcast, spoken, or otherwise communicated to others. Two different types of legal protections, libel and slander laws, exist to prevent such defamation from taking place. Although defamation encompasses both categories, they are separate concepts. Libel refers to written statements or printed visual depictions, while slander refers to verbal statements and gestures. State jurisdiction largely covers libel and slander laws, but they are nearly identical throughout the United States.

Freedom of Information Act

President Lyndon B. Johnson first signed the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) into law in 1966. By requiring full or partial disclosure of U.S. government information and documents, the act “helps the public keep track of its government’s actions, from the campaign expenditures of city commission candidates to federal agencies’ management of billions of dollars in tax revenues.

Although the act covers a large range of agencies, some offices are exempt from FOIA. The act provides access to the public records of the executive branch of the U. S. government but does not include documents from the current president, Congress, or the judicial branch (Citizen Media Law Project).

The Equal Time Rule

Falling under broadcast regulations, the Communication Act’s Section 315 also known as the Equal Time Rule requires radio and television stations to give equal opportunity for airtime to all candidates. Essentially, Section 315 ensures that TV and radio stations cannot favor any one political candidate over another.

Passed by Congress in 1927, the equal opportunity requirement was the first major federal broadcasting law. Even then, legislators feared that broadcasters and stations would still be able to manipulate elections. Although candidates cannot receive free airtime unless their opponents do as well, the law doesn’t take into consideration campaign funding. Well-funded candidates who can afford to pay for airtime still have an advantage over their poorly funded peers.

Q. 7  Explain different media laws being practiced in Pakistan.                         

Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory

The Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) was established under the Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (the PEMRA Ordinance), and has the mandate to regulate the establishment and operation of all broadcast media and distribution services, which are regulated in terms of the PEMRA Ordinance and the rules and regulations framed thereunder (the PEMRA Laws). PEMRA regulates the distribution of foreign and local TV and radio channels in Pakistan 

PEMRA shall have the exclusive right to issue licences for the establishment and operation of all broadcast media and distribution services, provided that this exclusive right shall be used by PEMRA in conformity with the principles of fairness and equity applied to all potential applicants for licences, whose eligibility shall be based on prescribed criteria notified in advance. For purposes of the foregoing: 

  • ‘broadcast media’ includes such media that originate and propagate broadcast and prerecorded signals by terrestrial means or through satellite for radio or television and includes teleporting, provision of access to broadcast signals by channel providers and such other forms of broadcast media as the PTA may allow, with the approval of the federal government; and
  • ‘distribution services’ includes a service that receives broadcast and prerecorded signals from different channels and distributes them to subscribers through cable, wireless or satellite options and includes cable TV, Local Multipoint Distribution Service, MMDS, direct-to-home (DTH) and such other similar technologies.

The relevant government ministry regarding telecommunications services is the Ministry of Information, Broadcasting, National History and Literary Heritage (Pakistan). 

PEMRA shall issue licences for broadcast media and distribution services in the following categories, namely:

  • international- and national-scale stations;
  • provincial-scale broadcasts;
  • local area or community-based radio and TV broadcasts;
  • specific and specialised subjects;
  • distribution services; and
  • uplinking facilities, including teleporting and digital satellite news gathering.

Ownership restrictions

Do any foreign ownership restrictions apply to media services? Is the ownership or control of broadcasters otherwise restricted? Are there any regulations in relation to the cross-ownership of media companies, including radio, television and newspapers?

Yes, a licence shall not be granted to: 

  • a person who is not a citizen of Pakistan or resident in Pakistan; 
  • a foreign company organised under the laws of any foreign government; 
  • a company the majority of whose shares are owned or controlled by foreign nationals or companies whose management or control is vested in foreign nationals or companies; or 
  • any person funded or sponsored by a foreign government or organisation.  


A person who is issued a licence under the PEMRA Ordinance shall:

  • ensure the preservation of the sovereignty, security and integrity of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan;
  • ensure the preservation of the national, cultural, social and religious values and the principles of public policy as enshrined in the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan;
  • ensure that all programmes and advertisements do not contain or encourage violence, terrorism, racial, ethnic or religious discrimination, sectarianism, extremism, militancy, hatred, pornography, obscenity, vulgarity or other material offensive to commonly accepted standards of decency;
  • comply with the codes of programmes and advertisements approved by PEMRA and appoint an in-house monitoring committee, under intimation to PEMRA, to ensure compliance with the Code;
  • not broadcast or distribute any programme or advertisement in violation of copyright or any other property right;
  • obtain a no-objection certificate (NOC) from PEMRA before the import of any transmitting apparatus for broadcasting, distribution or teleporting operation; and
  • not sell, transfer or assign any of the rights conferred by the licence without prior written permission of PEMRA. 

 Every application form shall be accompanied by a non-refundable application processing fee as set out in Schedule-B of the Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority Rules 2009 (the PEMRA Rules). Applications for the grant of a licence shall, in the first instance, be short listed by adopting the following criteria:

  • financial viability; 
  • technical feasibility; 
  • financial strength; 
  • credibility and track record; 
  • majority shareholding and management control shall vest in Pakistani nationals; 
  • prospects of technical progress and introduction of new technology;
  • market advancement, such as improved service features or market concepts; 
  • contribution to universal service objectives; and 
  • contribution to other social and economic development objectives. 

 Each successful applicant shall, within time prescribed by PEMRA and before the issues of the licence, deposit the applicable licence fee and make a security deposit, if applicable, as set out in Schedule-B. The security deposit shall be refundable after the expiry of one year of operation of the station to the satisfaction of PEMRA. 

Q. 8  Write an essay on Freedom of expression and ethics in the backdrop of current situation of media in Pakistan. / What is the importance of freedom of media in a democratic state?   

Freedom of expression refers to the ability of an individual or group of individuals to express their beliefs, thoughts, ideas, and emotions about different issues free from government censorship. The First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution protects the rights of individuals to freedom of religion, speech, press, petition, and assembly. Some scholars group several of those freedoms under the general term “freedom of expression.”

Most state constitutions also contain provisions guaranteeing freedom of expression. Some provide even greater protection than the First Amendment. Freedom of expression is essential to individual liberty and contributes to what the Supreme Court has called the marketplace of ideas. The First Amendment assumes that the speaker, not the government, should decide the value of speech.

In this era of information, where everything is just a click away, life seems incomplete without news updates. To check updates about one’s city before stepping out of the home, has now become a routine for every citizen, at least in Pakistan.

Media in Pakistan has seen a revolutionary boom in no time. During the last ten years, the number of people reached by mass media has risen and its media’s role in their life has dramatically increased. Countless of channels have emerged in last few years. From news to entertainment, from dramas to fashion and from cooking to religion, you’ve dedicated channels for everything, even for health.

Media, indeed, has a major role in shaping public opinion and perception. It is understood that media can shape the public opinion the way it is intended. Mostly media has played an important role in educating the masses about their basic rights but like any other profession, there are some set rules, guidelines, and ethics set for media, which every journalist is supposed to follow.

Ethics is all about how to deal with your life, how you behave in your life. Your ethics is a reflection of your personality, your upbringing, your background  both professional and family.

The following Core Principles of ethical journalism were agreed as constituents of a recommended Code of Ethics for Pakistani Media with accompanying recommendations for their incorporation in the work of journalists:

1. Truth and Accuracy

All journalists should seek the truth through accurate and fact-based communications.

  • Journalists should be given sufficient time to cover the news in a comprehensive and holistic manner to maintain the sanctity of the news. They should not be coerced to file unsubstantiated or unverified information.
  • Training around the core principles for ethical journalism and good governance of media must be carried out on a periodic basis by the media organizations.
  • Monitoring on ethics should be ensured by devising a comprehensive system for media.

2. Pluralism

Journalists and media shall strive to tell all sides of a story and where possible give voice to different and opposing opinions including from minority groups.

  • Equal coverage must be given to the different fractions of the society, encouraging inclusion of different religions, caste, sects, nationality, ethnicity, gender, disability and other minority groups and communities.
  • Equal coverage of the communities on the basis of geographic divide like rural and urban should also be given importance.
  • To ensure inclusivity of different groups and communities, the appointment of minority representatives within regulatory bodies should be encouraged.
  • Media organizations should also seek to ensure diversity in the make-up of their newsroom reporting and editing staff.

3. Independence, Fairness and Impartiality

Journalists shall be professional and maintain editorial independence in the exercise of their work, avoiding all conflicts of interest and undue bias.

  • The full authority to cover uninfluenced and unbiased news and to act ethically, fairly and impartially must be given to the journalists/reporters.
  • The media houses should not use their journalists for generating business or for fulfilling the commercial interests as their prime job is reporting not business generation.

4. Confidentiality and Privacy

Journalists should respect the privacy and ensure confidentiality of survivors/victims and shall refrain from intruding into their private spaces.

  • Journalists should be made aware of the need for sensitive reporting and of the potential to increase the trauma of people who are the victims of violence or humanitarian crisis.
  • Journalists should be reminded that deception or subterfuge can only ever be justified in cases where all other legitimate means to obtain information have failed and there is a serious and intense public interest in the subject under investigation.
  • The definition of private and public space should be clearly outlined in order to ensure the confidentiality and privacy. 

5. Accountability and Good Governance

Media and the journalists who work for them shall engage with the audience and shall correct errors of fact and provide remedies and apology where appropriate. They shall be transparent in their work and apply principles of good governance in their activities.

  • Media should create systems of good governance in their internal management which should include: space for self-reflection and critical analysis among journalists and media management; transparency regarding the management and funding of the media houses; and the creation of internal structures for dealing with complaints.
  • The regional correspondents must be full time employee of the media organization instead of part time/volunteer journalist. Being employed in multiple sectors may hinder him/her to report about his/her institution/organization/department thus affecting fairness and impartiality.

Q. 9     Describe the process of picture editing?

Photo editing

Photograph changing is a procedure to manage the common pictures and make them noteworthy. A manager can resize the image to fit the association of the page. Photograph altering guarantees that the image coordinates no senseless parts. Photograph altering is finished for different purposes and is considered as an inborn piece of photography. No photograph is managed without altering.

Principles of photo editing

Altering is a crucial piece of the photojournalism interaction, and any individual who takes or works with pictures should know a portion of the essential standards and methods. These incorporate

  • Selection
  • Croping
  • Improving and scaling
  • Selection

Many variables go into a supervisor’s or alternately photojournalist’s choice to utilize a photo, and there are no conclusive rules overseeing their determination. Two significant reasons for distributing photos are to catch the consideration of the peruser and to delineate and enhance the publication content.


 The photos recount to a story that are probably going to be picked by a supervisor for distribution. Pictures that have high sensational quality are those wherein perusers can plainly determine what’s going on; as a matter of fact, there might a few things occur, as in a mishap scene with somebody standing close by with an anguished articulation.

Creative or specialized quality

Here we are discussing the great photo, the one that has sharp, clear concentration and great outlining or that presents a subject in a surprising or satisfying way. This sort of picture frequently shows up in papers, particularly with the difference in seasons.

Odd or surprising subjects

An image of something strange, something not prone to be seen by perusers in their day to day existences, makes a decent possibility for distribution. Surprising subjects might come from the day’s news occasions, like a fire or wreck, or they might be essentially something a photographic artist has stumbled upon or caught wind of, like a twelve-pound tomato or an elderly person’s shriveled articulation.

Unmistakable quality

Like the news worth of a similar name, conspicuousness is a quality editors frequently consider in choosing pictures. Pictures of celebrities are in every case probably possibility for distribution, in any event, when they don’t contain any of the characteristics referenced previously. Perusers will take a gander at pictures of celebrities, and editors will utilize such  for unequivocally that explanation.

A decent picture supervisor should have a “vibe” for detecting the great photo, one that will catch the consideration of the peruser, outline the article content and improve the general nature of the distribution

  • Croping

Croping infers taking out bits of a picture. It has two purposes: discarding pointless bits of a picture and focusing on or redesigning segments of a picture.

Removing useless parts of picture

 A couple of parts of a picture may essentially be futile to the subject and justification for the photograph, and they should be discarded. Habitually these parts are wasteful as well as redirecting. An editor ought to include the space in the paper successfully, and real managing of a photograph is one technique for doing this. Extraordinary, tight managing of pictures is comparably basically as critical as changing to discard inconsequential bits of a story.

Focusing on or redesigning bits of a picture

 One photograph could hold many pictures inside it. A respectable picture editor ought to have an eye for these photographs inside pictures and ought to have the choice to see and pick the picture that best fits the normal explanation. Managing is a way to deal with drawing out the particular picture the chief requirements to use, of highlighting the piece of the picture that perusers should observe. A picture that seems, by all accounts, to be ordinary from the very outset may be made close to home by incredible managing

Principles of photo editing

Avoid editing the original photo

It’s essential to make a duplicate of the picture you’re dealing with, first and foremost as a reinforcement and furthermore so you can return and work on it once more to attempt something else entirely. In like manner, it’s fundamental to utilize layers while making alters while utilizing photograph altering programming, leaving the hidden picture immaculate. This way you’ll constantly have a speedy and simple reference highlight see what the first resembled before you began tweaking colors, correcting explicit regions and playing with contrast.

Crope out unnecessary parts of photo

Croping is one of the most key photograph changing devices found inside programming, yet on the other hand it’s one of the most striking. Figuring out a smart method for utilizing it fittingly will guarantee you dispose of segments of a picture that don’t assist with recounting a story, while zeroing in on those that do. That can mean dropping goliath foundations from depiction or untamed life photography, or utilizing express sizes and perspective degrees to make a shot look undauntedly changed. A 6:5 degree works remarkably, with a picture surveying 600 pixels across. Square yields are a striking other decision

Maintenance of quality when sizing and scaling

Hold point of view and keep up with quality while resizing. This could sound straightforward, yet it’s crucial to keep similar aspects while resizing, or scaling, a picture. That implies that the width and level aspects should remain something very similar to hold viewpoint and stop a picture becoming distorted or extended. Developing pictures more than 100% will prompt them becoming pixelated, despite the fact that it is feasible to resize a picture without losing quality by resampling. This changes the quantity of pixels in a picture. You can likewise change the goal inside photograph altering programming to change the nature of the last picture – web pictures will generally be at a lower goal than print quality ones.

Avoid excessive retouching

Figuring out how to modify skin and different parts of a picture is one of the best time portions of photograph altering. Dominating essential photograph altering spot recuperating and clone devices can rapidly tidy up pictures and make them look significantly neater. Nonetheless, such capabilities ought to be utilized sparingly.

Significance of photo editing

To draw in watchers

Journalism is a wide term that incorporates composed as well as visuals for handing-off data to the watchers. Visuals are more fit for holding the consideration of the watcher when contrasted with composed texts. Thus, they are a significant piece of papers. Altering of the image gives an edge to the image to draw in additional watchers.


 It isn’t required that you utilize composed texts to convey a story. Visuals and pictures are a simple and more compelling approach to recounting a story. Thusly, the news-casting industry utilizes photographs to convey the story behind the image. Altering assists with coordinating the image in a way that passes the specific message which the photographic artist means on to convey.

Praises the written text

 News that contains photographs alongside composed messages holds more significance as it fills in as the direction for the message. Altering permits you to form picture in a way that praises the composed text.

Photograph changing associations have an uncommon effect in explaining and enormous pictures in photojournalism. Consequently, we are posting the gigantic photograph changing methods utilized in news-anticipating for your comprehension.

Q. 10 Discuss ethics of photojournalism


Photojournalism is the course of narrating involving the mode of photography as your principal narrating gadget. While a writer will utilize their pen and paper to recount stories, a photojournalist will utilize their camera to catch the visual portrayal of a story.

The greater part of us are know all about the familiar saying “words generally can’t do a picture justice”. Well this is the hypothesis behind photojournalism. News distributions will pay as much as possible to those photojournalists who can catch the most sensational pictures on film or their CCD chip.

Robert Capa is an incredible illustration of a photojournalist. He captured many conflicts and had the saying “In the event that your photos aren’t adequate you’re too far off”. Tragically this proverbs lead to his demise as he was lethally harmed in the Indochina War.

Ethics of photojournalism

  1. Respect truth, whatever the implications for himself/herself.
  2.  Actually take a look at sources
  3. Simply circulate information that can be followed back to its beginning stage
  4. Avoid using any double-crossing means to achieve photographs
  5. Never pay sources or subjects
  6. Move toward subjects with yielding and balance and stay away from infringing upon private depictions of dejection aside from in the event that there is a genuine and pressing support behind their public disclosure.
  7. Never discourage an event or attempt to change its course
  8. Never set up or re-endorsed a situation
  9. Ceaselessly create legit captions.
  10. Share with the boss all information he/she has, to avoid misinterpretations or inappropriate use.
  11. Pick disseminations with care to avoid any distribution misuse.

Avoid violation of ethics

Visual altering and moral infringement have been around nearly the same length as the actual camera. The historical backdrop of photojournalism incorporates numerous instances of moral breaks. Find out about well known carefully changed photographs at Photo Tampering throughout history. Photographs examined incorporate the well known President Lincoln photograph, a photo of Adolf Hitler and that of a National Geographic cover highlighting Egyptian pyramids, among others.

The most ideal way to stay away from a morals infringement is to maintain truth in photojournalism. If you have any desire to control picture tones or a subject’s look, ensure the inscription shows that the picture is a “photograph delineation” or “creative translation.” Similarly, mark stock pictures thusly and ensure you note whether a photograph was organized.

Types of photojournalism

  • Sports photojournalism
  • Highlight photojournalism
  • Normal depictions
  • Representation photojournalism

Sports photojournalism

In this, the visual specialist needs to go to various games to click that one picture which can assist the gathering with figuring out the entire occasion. Here visual expert ought to be extraordinarily ready and ought to recognize which point is ideal to tap the image.

Highlight photojournalism

 Here the visual specialist clicks those images which is of human interest, for example, shows, fairs, style occasions, business occasions, and so on. There are two types of highlight photojournalism.

1) Lighthearted pictures that engage more than illuminate.

2) Serious pictures that illuminate more than engage.

For instance, happy pictures are squirrels biting on nuts, youngsters playing in enormous boxes, guardians pushing kids on swings

For instance, serious pictures are passing on individuals with AIDS mounting a courageous battle against the sickness, a young violin wonder set out toward notoriety. Serious pictures convey news pieces of information or affiliations or test the presence of their area, reach toward their subjects’ substances.

Normal depictions:

 The picture taker is free in the field where the occasion is occurring and gets the chief subject of the occasion. The depiction should convey the subject of the image.

Representation photojournalism

Representation photojournalism alludes to joined or controlled pictures that make a “new” picture. In any case, news photographic artists can not control an image without calling it a photograph delineation. Pictures in this classification outwardly attempt to convey thoughts and ideas, and items. The two classes request an especially high specialized visual skill and sharp, sharp personalities that can create pictures that obviously pass on the expected messages at the same time in smart, eye-getting ways.

Features of good photojournalist

  • The news visual expert should have an inventive vision.
  • He should rush to investigate the entire occasion and snap an image which should be utilized as a summing up well-informed authority.
  • The photojournalist should know every one of the frameworks of photography and altering.
  • He should be vivacious and perceive photojournalism as typical work.
  • He should recognize motivations from different photojournalists.
  • He should in this way know how to function under wild conditions with low stuff.
  • He ought to have a fascinating vibe of creative mind.

Q. 11 why free flow of information has resulted in dominant of western media. / write a detailed note on Free Flow of Information.

The Free Flow of Information Act is a bill intended to provide a news reporter with the right to refuse to testify as to information or sources of information obtained during the newsgathering and distribution process.

The “Free Flow of Information” is a concept linked to the basic human right of freedom of speech and opinion. Every one has the right to freedom of opinion and expression. This right includes freedom to hold opinion without interference and to see, receive and impart information and ideas through any medium regardless of any frontiers.

Accurate knowledge about the true problem, about the complex aspects that affect the problem and potential solution, and about how humans tend to think, react, and behave is essential for developing practical, innovative solutions. It requires getting the requisite knowledge in applicable form to the best point in the design process. And many times, to reach this goal, we must break down some mental barriers that we have built inside our minds.

To get new information to the right people at the right time requires knowledge producers to break down many different barriers. The barriers to the flow of information are not just geographic. A gap can be found between universities and private companies, which tacitly means between scientific knowledge and product knowledge. Knowledge becomes significant only when it is expressed in practical terms, such as product development and other applications. However, information becomes knowledge and applicable only when built upon the ever-growing body of basic knowledge, which is discovered in the academic inquiry of the university.

To achieve such a complementary fusion of knowledge, those interested in the creation and application of knowledge need to find ways to scale the fences that might separate them. Such fences involve the languages (both cultural and terminological) of the fields of expertise, the different social rules and forms of expression between and within organizations, a lack of trust, and varying goals and interests, to name a few, which create barriers to effective communication and the quality use of knowledge. One possible means of bridging the gap between these distinct cultures is through open access scientific publishing. Open access journals make knowledge and discovery freely available for those who need it. Open access journals allow those who seek information to find those whose prior seeking has resulted in new perspectives, new data, new knowledge. For this reason alone open access journals are an essential part of communicating about scientific research findings and knowledge. And it seems that open access publishing is an especially natural way for university research to be distributed for the greater good.

Free flow of information, After the Second World War and the establishment of a bi-polar world of free market capitalism and state socialism, theories of international communication became part of the new Cold War discourse. For the supporters of capitalism, the primary function of international communication was to promote democracy, freedom of expression and markets, while the Marxists argued for greater state regulation on communication and media outlets.
The concept of the ‘free flow of information’ reflected Western, and specifically US, antipathy to state regulation and censorship of the media and its use for propaganda by its communist opponents. The ‘free flow’ doctrine was essentially a part of the liberal, free market discourse that championed the rights of media proprietors to sell wherever and whatever they wished. As most of the world’s media resources and media-related capital, then as now, were concentrated in the West, it was the media proprietors in Western countries, their governments and national business communities that had most to gain.

The concept of ‘free flow’ therefore served both economic and political purposes. Media organizations of the media-rich countries could hope to dissuade others from erecting trade barriers to their products or from making it difficult to gather news or make programmes on their territories. Their argument drew on premises of democracy, freedom of expression, the media’s role as ‘public watchdog’ and their assumed global relevance. For their compatriot businessmen, ‘free flow’ assisted them in advertising and marketing their goods and services in foreign markets, through media vehicles whose information and entertainment products championed the Western way of life and its values of capitalism and individualism.

For Western governments, ‘free flow’ helped to ensure the continuing and unreciprocated influence of Western media on global markets, strengthening the West in its ideological battle with the Soviet Union. The doctrine also contributed to providing, in generally subtle rather than direct ways, vehicles for communication of US government points of view to international audience

Q.12:   How newspaper page is planned and designed? / importance of page planning, visualization and graphics for promotion of good newspaper.

Paper creation is a showing that starting points from the get-together of reports, articles, notions, advertorials and advancements to printing and falling of the printed rendition. Regularly, the news things are engraved onto newsprint. The whole show association can be secluded into four areas: Content party, Pre-press, Press and Post-press. The term creation cycle should not be confused with manufacture as Production process is the stage at which numerous obligations are required and accumulated in basically all countries. Create is the stage at which the thing becomes appealing and subsequently the term similarly consolidates the periods of packaging and squeezing

Newspaper production process

Content collection

Newspaper content can be isolated into two sections:

  • News/Information
  • Promotion

Sources utilized incorporate data given by new organizations like Reuters, Associated Press, and so forth in addition to data accessible from the Internet. This can be from Government sources, for example, Government offices for example Organizations House, business endeavors spend significant time in information assortment and other expert associations. Likewise, there are supposed web-based entertainment outlets, not generally known for their verifiable exactness.

Pre-press Edit

Pre-press is where photos are adjusted, sees are made and made and the whole pages of the papers are fanned out and arranged.

After stories have been modified, the administrator and other sub-editors will sit in an article meeting to sort out what goes inside the paper for the day. Then, each sub-manager should plan his pages if possible. The exhibiting division moreover will propel the advancements that have been paid for with assurance of the pages assigned to the advert, all of these will be shipped off article office to add these pages in their orchestrating cycle. The paper organizing is done on a deceptive sheet (an unmistakable sheet imploded as a pre-print test) to give a model of the last perspective of each pages, this is called page orchestrating. After the readiness, the distribution office progresses the by and large organized pages to the sensible portion where the fake sheets are changed to a critical modernized structure.

At the pre-press, text, pictures, cutline, plans, and graphical depictions as well as assortment are gathered to approach the paper pages. More unassuming papers occasionally really use workspace appropriating programs (DTP) like Corel Draw, Adobe PageMaker, Adobe InDesign, Quark Express and other visual portrayal programming. This item enables the visual maker to really make pages and result them on a printed duplicate affirmation printer for altering and sending the corrected and finished pages to a RIP (Raster Image Processor). The RIP changes PostScript (PS/EPS) or PDF pages into rasterized TIFF G4 data.


The printing system is the fundamental interaction step during paper creation. Snappiness and unwavering quality with simultaneously sensible creating are the foundations in the creation and handling of print products.[2] Newspaper squeezes produce not only merchandise in process (sheets, marks or reels of printout) as it is the situation with average print machines. Rather paper revolving presses can create duplicates which are done products.

The commonplace paper press is partitioned into two sections: printing and collapsing.

Post press Edit

The copies are accumulated on the movement belt and, generally speaking, delivered to the arranging room using a gripper transport structure. The post-press locale is moreover oftentimes called arranging room since here the copies are prepared for mailing to the clients. Paper copies can be bundled clearly so they are fit to be put into a truck for transportation.

Page planning

Paper page orchestrating is the most well-known approach to giving the model of the last angle of each page on counterfeit sheets. Faker sheets are regularly little types of an entire page of a paper. For magazines it might be a standard interpretation. A couple of papers moreover use standard size types of hoax sheets to organize pages. The deceptive sheet is isolated into sections using what is called structure lines. A structure is a lot of non-printing lines that help editors and fashioners with coordinating place of parts on a page.

Incredible page orchestrating ensures that a paper is straightforward and supportive to examine. This is for the most part the crucial concern of perusers. How you achieve that isn’t their benefit. To this end page organizing is one of the very major pieces of paper creation process. Page organizing includes fanning out parts on a page such that simplifies it for perusers to consume the things.

Page designing

In visual portrayal, page configuration suggests the most widely recognized approach to putting and sorting out text, pictures, and representations on an item page to make records like notices, pamphlets, and books or to attract readership to a site. The goal is to make eye-getting pages that get the notification of the peruser.

Tips for Page layout design

  • Minimalist Design.
  • Color Schemes needs to be good.
  • Flat loom
  • Use of Grid or Geometric Patterns.
  • Choose Easy Fonts.
  • Font Sizes should be consistent.
  • Alignment is important.
  • Adjust free Space.

Importance of newspaper designing

 The plan of papers can impact perusers to get one duplicate over one more or influence perusers to change to different distributers and mediums. One of the main plan decisions that papers need to think about while planning is design.

What sort of page configuration is normal for newspapers?

The broadsheet turned into the norm for most American papers too, and today numerous everyday metropolitan papers hold the broadsheet plan, despite the fact that at a much smaller spread. Significant distributions, for example, The New York Times and The Washington Post are spread out in broadsheet structure.

Q.13:   Define proof reading. Elaborate mechanism of proof reading.


Editing implies cautiously taking a look at the text for mistakes before distribution or dissemination. This is the last move toward the creative cycle, amending minor spelling and accentuation blunders, incorrect spellings, arranging issues, and irregularities. Editing includes really taking a look at the last text to ensure the language structure, spelling, accentuation, and designing are reliable and right

What is conventional proofreading?

Something blurring’s comprehension individuals might interpret what editing involves is the way that the word is utilized distinctively in various fields. Inquiring “What is editing?” to somebody in the distributing calling, for instance, will probably collect an altogether different answer than asking somebody at a college.

What sorts of messes up are seen and fixed during proofreading?

Right when a record is fit to be modified, it ought to have been changed as of now. This surmises its substance ought to by and by be capable, painstakingly shaped, and clear. Adjusting similarly consolidates abstaining from messes up, however it zeros in more on ensuring the record seems, by all accounts, to be OK generally speaking.

Proof reading model

You could use the best creators in the business nevertheless, promoting experts regularly have an entire thought to them and know definitively the manner by which they anticipate that their work should sound. This can provoke dismissing fundamental stumbles or leaving openings in reasoning, provoking disorder or getting by the peruser wrong.

Translation and Bilingual Proofreading

How should an interpreted text require a particular sort of altering? Fundamentally, unraveled texts contain different kinds of bumbles than texts written in English. English altering of text written in English will focus in on typical missteps made in English synthesis, similar to the disorder of they’re/their/there or maltreatment of to versus too. Translation altering is the altering of unraveled texts and is also suggested on occasion as bilingual altering. As well as examining a text for spelling, language, and highlight, translation or bilingual editors need to check to guarantee that the interpreted text lines up with the first.

Print Media Proofreading

Print media altering is probable the most notable sort of altering. Editors for print media work at papers, magazines, book appropriating associations, and online altering organizations. They overall perform checks for spelling, emphasis, and phonetic slip-ups. Altering for print media in like manner needs to give explicit thought to sorting out, for instance, edges, text size, separating, and literary style choice.

Proofreader responsibility

  • Fixing botches

It is the essential action a specialist proofreader takes while altering, but there is extensively more behind a manager’s work.

Diving into extra nuances a specialist supervisor truly takes a gander at your copy for:

  • Spelling Typos

 For sure, even the best researchers commit an irregular spelling mistake. While making business copy, the accentuation is predominantly on the brand message and voice, passing on a ton of room for an erroneously spelled word to sneak in.

Highlight Mistakes

Truth be told, comma rules change fundamentally dependent upon the style guide you’re using. Comma unites aren’t the principal highlight bungles you could ignore. It’s very easy to reevaluate a colon (:) or semicolon (;) especially if you don’t include them in your conventional creation. A proofreader will guarantee that your highlight is impeccably positioned, conveys the right tone, and plays by all the standard principles it necessities to.

  • Wrong Word Usage

There are many generally mishandled words and articulations. At times, it’s an issue of focusing in on the higher point of view as opposed to the solitary word. Various times, it’s an issue of basically not knowing the qualification. Having some unsuitable word can change the importance certainly and can make it jumbled to your group unequivocally definite thing or organization you’re endeavoring to sell. Permit your supervisor to guarantee your work has the right word predictably.

  • Clashing brand style and voice

 Imagine scrutinizing a youths’ book about entertainers and wizards. Out of the blue, to a limited extent five, there’s a segment about carrying out your responsibilities. Feels abnormal, right? That is the manner in which it feels for your peruser while your creating switches style mid-project.

  • Hyphenation and capitalization botches

We all in all acknowledge you should endorse the important articulation of every single sentence, aside from capitalization isn’t immediate without fail. Do you know about when you should guarantee Lieutenant? Might you at any point say whether you ought to guarantee canine assortments?

  • Activity word tenses

 Anytime do you saw a sentence where the activity word didn’t look at, as of now? Was that sentence puzzling? It should have been. The activity word tenses were wild, making the sentence feel unusual and wrong. Activity word tense issues are uncommonly ordinary, so it implies a lot to check for their consistency in a last draft.

  • Organizing

Organizing your forming is likewise essentially as huge as the real words. Do whatever it takes not to trust it? Explore this article. Portions are disengaged by headers so your eyes can without a doubt look at and handle the substance.

Sentence structure

 There are three essential kinds of mistakes in sentence structure:

  • Sentence segments: These are sentences that are inadequate.
  • Run-on sentences: These are two independent explanations that are joined mistakenly. (i.e.. The canine gabbed the man called the police)
  • Comma unites: These are without two stipulations joined by a comma that shouldn’t be (i.e. The canine gabbed, the man called the police).
  • Like language structure issues and activity word tenses, these leave the peruser focusing in on making sense of your sentences rather than sorting out the sign of your substance. Expecting they need to put forth a strong attempt to understand your significance, they’re most likely going to give up overall.

Proofreading mechanism

Editing is the last move toward the creative cycle. Some portion of the modifications happen before distribution. An editor will peruse a piece of composing on numerous occasions, recognizing and remedying any blunders connected with spelling, language structure, accentuation, shows, or designing.


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