Exam Material Autumn,2022 Course: National & International Current Affairs-I (5633)

Mass Communication Semester-IV

Important Questions with Answers prepared by Faiza Gul, FRilmi Team (Errors and omissions acceptable) Disclaimer: All Questions and Answers are Based on self assessment and It is only Guess material.

Q.1  What is good governance?  Suggest the ways and means as how to promote it in Pakistan? / discuss strength and weakness of local political system.

Good governance refers to a system of transparent, accountable, and efficient management of public affairs that promotes the rule of law, upholds human rights, and fosters socio-economic development. It involves the responsible use of power, effective institutions, participatory decision-making, and responsiveness to the needs of citizens. Promoting good governance is crucial for the sustainable development and stability of a country. Here are some ways and means to promote good governance in Pakistan:

  1. Strengthening institutions: Pakistan should focus on strengthening its institutions, including the judiciary, civil service, election commission, and anti-corruption bodies. These institutions should be given the necessary resources, autonomy, and independence to operate effectively.
  2. Rule of law: Ensure that the rule of law prevails by promoting an independent and impartial judiciary, improving access to justice, and ensuring that laws are enforced equally for all citizens. This includes combating corruption and ensuring accountability for public officials.
  3. Transparency and accountability: Promote transparency in government processes by ensuring access to information, disclosing public finances, and encouraging public participation in decision-making. Implement mechanisms to hold public officials accountable for their actions and ensure proper oversight of government activities.
  4. Citizen engagement and participation: Encourage citizen engagement and participation in policy-making and governance processes. This can be done through mechanisms such as town hall meetings, public consultations, and citizen feedback mechanisms. Empower civil society organizations to play an active role in monitoring and advocating for good governance.
  5. Decentralization and local governance: Promote decentralization by devolving power and resources to local governments. This helps in bringing governance closer to the people, fostering citizen participation, and addressing local needs effectively.
  6. Capacity building and professional development: Invest in the capacity building and professional development of public officials to enhance their skills, knowledge, and ethical standards. This can be done through training programs, merit-based hiring, and performance evaluation mechanisms.
  7. Electoral reforms: Ensure free, fair, and transparent elections by implementing electoral reforms. This includes strengthening the independence and effectiveness of the election commission, improving the electoral process, and promoting political finance reforms to reduce the influence of money in politics.
  8. Media freedom: Safeguard media freedom and independence, allowing for the free flow of information and diverse opinions. Protect journalists’ rights, ensure responsible reporting, and encourage investigative journalism to expose corruption and promote accountability.
  9. Public service delivery: Focus on improving the quality and efficiency of public services such as healthcare, education, and infrastructure. Implement e-governance initiatives to enhance service delivery, reduce bureaucracy, and minimize corruption.
  10. International cooperation: Seek international cooperation and assistance in promoting good governance. Collaborate with international organizations, civil society groups, and other countries to share best practices, learn from global experiences, and receive technical support in governance reforms.

Promoting good governance is a long-term and continuous process that requires commitment, political will, and active participation from all stakeholders. It requires a comprehensive approach encompassing legal, institutional, and societal reforms to create an environment that upholds the principles of accountability, transparency, and participation in the governance of the country.

Strength and weakness of local political system in Pakistan.

The local political system in Pakistan has both strengths and weaknesses. Here are some of the key strengths and weaknesses of the local political system in Pakistan:


  1. Devolution of power: One of the strengths of the local political system in Pakistan is the devolution of power through local government systems. The 18th Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan in 2010 enhanced the autonomy and authority of local governments, allowing them to make decisions on matters that directly affect their communities.
  2. Grassroots representation: The local political system provides an opportunity for grassroots representation, allowing local issues and concerns to be addressed more effectively. It enables citizens to participate in decision-making processes, ensuring that their voices are heard and their needs are considered.
  3. Capacity building: The local political system has the potential to build the capacity of local leaders and representatives. It provides opportunities for individuals to develop their leadership skills, gain political experience, and contribute to the development of their communities.
  4. Proximity to the people: Local governments are closer to the people and can have a better understanding of local needs, challenges, and aspirations. This proximity allows for more effective and targeted policy-making and service delivery.


  1. Limited autonomy and resources: Despite efforts to devolve power, local governments in Pakistan still face challenges in terms of limited autonomy and resources. They often rely heavily on provincial governments for funding and are subject to their control, which can hinder their ability to effectively address local issues.
  2. Political interference: Local politics in Pakistan is often characterized by political interference, patronage, and influence from higher-level politicians. This can undermine the independence and effectiveness of local governments, as decisions are sometimes made based on political considerations rather than the best interests of the community.
  3. Weak governance structures: Local governance structures in Pakistan often lack capacity, efficiency, and transparency. There is a need for improved institutional mechanisms, administrative procedures, and financial management systems at the local level.
  4. Inadequate representation: Despite the existence of local governments, there are concerns about the representation of marginalized groups, including women, minorities, and disadvantaged communities. Efforts need to be made to ensure their meaningful participation in local decision-making processes.
  5. Capacity constraints: Local government officials and representatives may face capacity constraints, including a lack of technical expertise, limited resources for training and development, and inadequate support systems. This can hinder their ability to effectively fulfill their roles and responsibilities.
  6. Accountability challenges: Ensuring accountability and transparency at the local level remains a challenge in Pakistan. Mechanisms for monitoring and oversight of local government actions and financial management need to be strengthened to prevent corruption and ensure proper utilization of resources.

Addressing these weaknesses requires a comprehensive approach that includes legal reforms, capacity building, improved financial management systems, and measures to enhance the autonomy and accountability of local governments. Strengthening the local political system in Pakistan is crucial for empowering communities, promoting local development, and ensuring effective governance at all levels.

Q.2      How World Bank and IMF control economy of Pakistan? Discuss in detail.

Evaluate the critical role of International Monetary Fund (IMF) in the economy of developing countries with particular focus on Pakistan.

World Bank and IMF control economy of Pakistan

The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) do not directly control the economy of Pakistan or any other country. However, as international financial institutions, they can exert influence on a country’s economic policies and provide financial assistance with certain conditions. Here’s an explanation of how the World Bank and IMF interact with Pakistan’s economy:

  1. World Bank: The World Bank provides financial assistance, technical expertise, and policy advice to its member countries, including Pakistan. Its primary focus is on poverty reduction, sustainable development, and promoting economic growth. The World Bank supports Pakistan through various channels, including loans, grants, and technical assistance. Its assistance is typically targeted towards specific sectors, such as infrastructure development, education, healthcare, agriculture, and governance reforms.

The World Bank’s influence on Pakistan’s economy is primarily through policy dialogue, where it works with the Pakistani government to develop strategies and programs aligned with the Bank’s development objectives. The Bank provides technical expertise to help improve policy formulation, implementation, and institutional capacity. However, the Pakistani government ultimately retains decision-making authority over its economic policies and development agenda.

  • International Monetary Fund (IMF): The IMF’s primary role is to provide financial assistance, policy advice, and technical expertise to its member countries during times of economic crisis or to support economic reforms. Pakistan has sought IMF programs multiple times over the years to address its balance of payment crises, fiscal challenges, and macroeconomic imbalances.

When Pakistan enters into an IMF program, it receives financial assistance in the form of loans, along with conditions known as conditionality. The IMF’s conditionality is a set of policy reforms and structural adjustments that the borrowing country commits to implementing. These conditions are designed to address underlying economic vulnerabilities and promote macroeconomic stability. They can include measures such as fiscal consolidation, monetary tightening, exchange rate adjustments, privatization, and structural reforms in areas like tax administration, energy, and governance.

While the IMF does not directly control Pakistan’s economy, its financial assistance and policy advice carry weight due to the perception that implementing IMF conditions can restore market confidence, attract foreign investment, and help stabilize the economy. However, the Pakistani government retains the autonomy to negotiate the terms of the IMF program and make decisions regarding the implementation of the conditions.

It’s important to note that the World Bank and IMF work closely together in many cases. They coordinate their efforts to support countries’ economic development and address macroeconomic challenges. The World Bank may collaborate with the IMF to align their assistance and policy advice in a comprehensive approach to support a country’s economic reforms and development objectives.

In summary, while the World Bank and IMF can influence Pakistan’s economy through their financial assistance, policy advice, and conditionality, they do not directly control the country’s economic policies. The Pakistani government retains the authority to make decisions regarding its economic agenda and the implementation of reforms.

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) plays a critical role in the economy of developing countries, including Pakistan. The IMF is an international financial institution that provides financial assistance, policy advice, and technical expertise to its member countries. Here is an evaluation of the critical role of the IMF in the economy of developing countries, with a focus on Pakistan:

  1. Financial Assistance: One of the primary roles of the IMF is to provide financial assistance to countries facing economic challenges, such as balance of payment crises, fiscal imbalances, or external shocks. In the case of Pakistan, the country has sought IMF programs several times over the years to address its economic vulnerabilities and stabilize its economy. IMF loans provide a temporary source of funding to help countries meet their immediate financial obligations and restore macroeconomic stability.
  2. Policy Advice and Conditionality: In exchange for financial assistance, the IMF imposes conditions on borrowing countries, known as conditionality. These conditions typically involve policy reforms and structural adjustments aimed at addressing the underlying economic issues. The IMF provides policy advice and guidance to countries on macroeconomic stability, fiscal discipline, monetary policy, structural reforms, and governance improvements. The implementation of these reforms is intended to promote sustainable economic growth and stability.
  3. Confidence Building: The IMF’s involvement in a country’s economic affairs can help restore market confidence and attract foreign investments. The IMF’s support signals to international investors and lenders that the country is committed to implementing necessary reforms and addressing economic vulnerabilities, thereby reducing perceived risks and improving access to external financing.
  4. Technical Expertise and Capacity Building: The IMF provides technical expertise and capacity-building support to member countries. This assistance helps countries improve their economic policymaking, financial sector regulation, debt management, budgetary processes, and statistical systems. The IMF’s expertise and training programs contribute to enhancing a country’s institutional capacity and governance frameworks.
  5. Crisis Prevention and Management: The IMF also plays a role in crisis prevention and management by conducting regular economic surveillance and assessments of member countries. It provides early warnings about potential economic vulnerabilities and risks, allowing countries to take preemptive measures to avoid crises. In times of economic crises, the IMF can provide emergency financing and policy advice to help countries navigate through challenging situations.

However, it is important to note that the IMF’s involvement in a country’s economy also has some criticisms and challenges:

  1. Conditionality and Social Impact: The conditions attached to IMF loans can be demanding and may have social costs, such as austerity measures, subsidy reductions, or labor market reforms. These conditions can sometimes exacerbate inequality, poverty, and social unrest, leading to criticism that IMF programs prioritize economic stability over social welfare.
  2. Economic Dependence: Some argue that repeated reliance on IMF assistance creates a cycle of economic dependence, as countries become trapped in a pattern of borrowing to address short-term problems without addressing underlying structural issues. This can create a long-term burden on the borrowing country’s economy and limit its policy autonomy.
  3. Policy Prescription and Ownership: Critics argue that IMF policy advice may not always consider country-specific contexts and may promote a one-size-fits-all approach. The effectiveness of IMF programs depends on the degree to which the borrowing country takes ownership of the reforms and tailors them to its specific circumstances.

In the case of Pakistan, the IMF has been involved in multiple programs over the years to help address the country’s economic challenges, including balance of payment crises, fiscal deficits, and structural reforms. While IMF programs have provided short-term financial support and helped stabilize the economy, they have also faced criticisms for their impact on social welfare and concerns about long-term economic dependency.

Overall, the IMF plays a critical role in providing financial assistance, policy advice, and technical expertise to developing countries like Pakistan. Its involvement can help countries address immediate economic challenges, restore market confidence, and promote sustainable economic growth.

Q.3      How media can  play an effective role in promotion of tourism in Pakistan? Support your answer with sound arguments./ How can Pakistani media play its role in highlighting charming beauty of Pakistan? Suggest some steps to improve tourism in the country.

Media can play a vital role in promoting tourism in Pakistan by raising awareness about the country’s rich cultural heritage, natural beauty, and tourist destinations. Here are some ways in which media can play an effective role in promoting tourism in Pakistan:

  1. Content creation: Media outlets, including television channels, newspapers, magazines, and online publications, can create engaging and informative content about Pakistan’s tourist attractions. This content can include travel guides, feature stories on cultural events and festivals, documentaries on historical landmarks and natural wonders, and reviews of hotels, restaurants, and other tourist facilities. Such content can be shared on various media platforms, including social media, to reach a wider audience.
  2. Social media engagement: Social media platforms like Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and YouTube can be used to promote tourism in Pakistan. Media outlets can create engaging social media campaigns that showcase the country’s tourist attractions and encourage people to visit them. Social media influencers can be invited to visit Pakistan’s tourist destinations and share their experiences with their followers, generating interest in the country’s tourism industry.
  3. Collaborations with the tourism industry: Media outlets can collaborate with the tourism industry in Pakistan to create joint promotional campaigns. For example, travel agencies and tour operators can provide exclusive packages and discounts for media personnel to visit tourist destinations in Pakistan and create content about them. In return, media outlets can provide coverage and publicity for the tourism industry through their various channels.
  4. Highlighting positive aspects: Media can play a vital role in changing the perception of Pakistan in the eyes of the world by highlighting its positive aspects. By showcasing Pakistan’s welcoming and hospitable people, diverse culture, and beautiful landscapes, media can counter negative stereotypes and promote the country as a safe and attractive destination for tourists.
  5. Advocacy: Media can also play an advocacy role by highlighting issues that affect the tourism industry, such as lack of infrastructure, security concerns, and government policies. By bringing these issues to the attention of policymakers, media can help to influence positive change that will benefit the tourism industry in Pakistan.

In conclusion, media can play a critical role in promoting tourism in Pakistan by creating engaging and informative content, using social media platforms to engage with a wider audience, collaborating with the tourism industry, highlighting positive aspects, and playing an advocacy role. By working together, media outlets, tourism industry stakeholders, and the government can help to create a positive image of Pakistan as a tourist-friendly destination.

Steps to improve tourism in the country. Here are some steps that can be taken to improve tourism in Pakistan:

  1. Infrastructure development: Invest in developing and improving tourism infrastructure such as airports, roads, public transportation, accommodations, and tourist facilities. This will enhance accessibility and convenience for tourists visiting different regions of the country.
  2. Cultural preservation and promotion: Preserve and showcase Pakistan’s rich cultural heritage through the restoration and maintenance of historical sites, museums, and cultural centers. Organize cultural festivals, exhibitions, and events to promote local traditions, arts, and crafts.
  3. Destination diversification: Identify and develop new tourist destinations beyond the well-known attractions. Explore the potential of lesser-known regions and promote their unique offerings, natural beauty, and cultural significance to attract a wider range of tourists.
  4. Marketing and promotion: Implement effective marketing and promotion strategies to raise awareness about Pakistan as a tourist destination. Collaborate with tour operators, travel agencies, airlines, and media outlets to launch targeted campaigns both domestically and internationally. Utilize online platforms, social media, and travel websites to showcase Pakistan’s attractions and engage with potential tourists.
  5. Quality tourism services: Improve the quality of tourism services by enhancing hospitality, customer service, and professionalism among tour operators, hoteliers, guides, and other service providers. Encourage the adoption of international quality standards and best practices to ensure a positive experience for visitors.
  6. Security and safety: Enhance security measures and ensure the safety of tourists. Work closely with law enforcement agencies to provide a safe environment for visitors. Strengthen security arrangements at tourist sites, hotels, and transportation hubs.
  7. Sustainable tourism practices: Promote sustainable tourism practices that minimize negative environmental impacts and preserve the natural beauty and biodiversity of tourist destinations. Encourage responsible tourism activities, waste management, conservation efforts, and community involvement.
  8. Training and capacity building: Invest in training programs to enhance the skills and knowledge of tourism professionals, including guides, hotel staff, and service providers. Provide training on customer service, cultural awareness, language proficiency, and environmental sustainability.
  9. Streamlined visa processes: Simplify and expedite visa procedures to facilitate the entry of tourists into the country. Implement e-visa systems and provide visa-on-arrival facilities for eligible countries to encourage tourism.
  10. Public-private partnerships: Foster partnerships between the government, private sector, and local communities to jointly develop and manage tourism initiatives. Collaborate with private investors to attract investment in the tourism sector and encourage the development of quality tourism infrastructure.

By implementing these steps, Pakistan can enhance its tourism potential, attract more tourists, generate revenue, and create employment opportunities. It’s important to approach tourism development holistically, considering sustainability, cultural preservation, infrastructure development, and marketing strategies to ensure long-term success.

Q.4  How can Pakistan counter the menace of ethnicity and religious extremism? Suggest some remedial steps.

Countering the menace of ethnicity and religious extremism in Pakistan requires a multifaceted approach that addresses root causes, promotes inclusivity, and fosters a tolerant and harmonious society. Here are some remedial steps that can be taken:

  1. Education and Awareness:
  2. Promote quality education that emphasizes critical thinking, tolerance, respect for diversity, and peaceful coexistence.
  3. Incorporate curriculum reforms that promote understanding, respect, and acceptance of different ethnicities, religions, and cultures.
  4. Raise awareness about the negative consequences of extremism and the importance of pluralism and social cohesion.
  5. Interfaith Dialogue and Harmony:
  6. Encourage interfaith dialogue and interactions among different religious communities to foster understanding, dispel misconceptions, and promote harmony.
  7. Establish platforms for dialogue that bring together religious leaders, scholars, and community members to discuss shared values, common goals, and mutual respect.
  8. Strengthening Rule of Law:
  9. Ensure the rule of law, equal protection, and justice for all citizens, regardless of their ethnicity or religious beliefs.
  10. Counter hate speech, incitement, and extremist propaganda through effective legal frameworks and their enforcement.
  11. Address impunity by holding accountable those who incite violence or discriminate against individuals or communities based on ethnicity or religion.
  12. Socioeconomic Development:
  13. Address economic disparities and promote inclusive growth to reduce grievances that can be exploited by extremist elements.
  14. Implement targeted development programs in marginalized areas, providing access to education, healthcare, infrastructure, and economic opportunities for all communities.
  15. Community Engagement and Empowerment:
  16. Foster community engagement and empower local communities to actively participate in decision-making processes and promote social cohesion.
  17. Encourage community-led initiatives that promote dialogue, cooperation, and peaceful coexistence.
  18. Support civil society organizations working to counter extremism, promote tolerance, and engage with vulnerable communities.
  19. Media and Communication:
  20. Encourage responsible and balanced reporting in the media, highlighting positive stories of interfaith harmony, peaceful coexistence, and successful initiatives combating extremism.
  21. Promote media literacy programs to enhance critical thinking skills and educate citizens about the dangers of misinformation and extremist narratives.
  22. International Cooperation:
  23. Engage in international cooperation and exchange best practices with other countries facing similar challenges.
  24. Seek technical assistance, capacity building, and collaboration with international organizations and partners in countering extremism and promoting social cohesion.
  25. Addressing Root Causes:
  26. Address underlying grievances related to political, socioeconomic, and identity issues that contribute to ethnic and religious tensions.
  27. Promote social inclusion, equal opportunities, and political representation for all communities.

These remedial steps should be implemented in a comprehensive and coordinated manner, involving various stakeholders, including the government, civil society, religious leaders, educators, and communities. It requires long-term commitment, sustained efforts, and a focus on building an inclusive and tolerant society where diversity is celebrated and extremism finds no fertile ground.

Q.5  Explain the root causes of load shedding of electricity in the country? How can this be addressed effectively.

Load shedding of electricity in a country like Pakistan can be attributed to several root causes. Here are some of the key factors that contribute to this issue:

  1. Insufficient Power Generation Capacity: Pakistan faces a significant gap between electricity supply and demand. The existing power generation capacity is often unable to meet the growing energy needs of the country. Insufficient investment in new power projects and slow capacity expansion have led to a supply-demand imbalance.
  2. Inadequate Infrastructure and Transmission Losses: The transmission and distribution infrastructure in Pakistan is outdated and inefficient. Transmission losses, technical faults, and outdated equipment result in significant energy wastage during the transmission and distribution process. These losses contribute to the overall power shortage and the need for load shedding.
  3. Dependence on Non-Renewable Energy Sources: Pakistan heavily relies on non-renewable energy sources, particularly thermal power plants that use fossil fuels. Reliance on these sources leads to supply disruptions due to fuel shortages, price fluctuations, and maintenance issues. Fluctuating global oil and gas prices also affect the availability and affordability of fuel for power generation.
  4. Circular Debt and Financial Constraints: Circular debt refers to the accumulated unpaid bills and outstanding dues in the power sector. It hampers the financial viability of power companies, limits their ability to invest in infrastructure upgrades and new projects, and affects the overall stability of the power sector.
  5. Inefficient Energy Policies and Governance: Inconsistent energy policies, weak governance, and regulatory challenges have contributed to the energy crisis in Pakistan. Inadequate planning, delayed decision-making, and policy inconsistencies have hindered the development of a sustainable and reliable energy sector.

To address the issue of load shedding effectively, the following steps can be taken:

  1. Diversify Energy Mix: Promote a diversified energy mix by investing in renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric power. This will reduce reliance on fossil fuels and enhance energy security.
  2. Increase Power Generation Capacity: Focus on expanding power generation capacity through the development of new power projects, both large-scale and small-scale. Encourage public-private partnerships and foreign investment in the energy sector to accelerate capacity expansion.
  3. Improve Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure: Upgrade and modernize the transmission and distribution infrastructure to reduce transmission losses and improve energy efficiency. Investment in smart grid technologies and infrastructure maintenance can help minimize power wastage.
  4. Energy Conservation and Demand Management: Encourage energy conservation practices and raise awareness among consumers about the importance of efficient energy use. Implement demand-side management strategies, such as time-of-use tariffs and energy-efficient building codes, to balance energy demand and supply.
  5. Address Circular Debt: Take measures to resolve the issue of circular debt by improving revenue collection, reducing losses, and ensuring timely payments throughout the energy supply chain. Implement financial reforms and restructuring measures to restore the financial health of the power sector.
  6. Strengthen Energy Governance: Enhance the governance framework for the energy sector by streamlining policies, improving regulatory mechanisms, and ensuring transparency and accountability. Establish an effective and independent regulatory authority to oversee the sector’s operations and enforce compliance.
  7. Regional Energy Cooperation: Explore regional energy cooperation opportunities, such as cross-border energy trade and joint power projects, to enhance energy connectivity and access to affordable and reliable electricity.

Addressing the root causes of load shedding requires a comprehensive and coordinated approach involving government institutions, power companies, regulators, consumers, and other stakeholders. It demands long-term planning, sustained investment, and policy consistency to develop a robust and resilient energy sector that can meet the growing energy needs of the country.


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