Course: Minorities and Human Rights in Pakistan (9369)

Level: BS Pak Study (2.5 Year) Semester: Spring, 2023

               ASSIGNMENT No.1

Q.l Discuss the rights of children and their provision to the Pakistani children.     

The rights of children in Pakistan are protected under various international conventions and national laws. Pakistan is a signatory to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), which outlines the fundamental rights and protections that all children should enjoy. Here are some key aspects of children’s rights in Pakistan:

  1. Right to Education: The Constitution of Pakistan guarantees free and compulsory education for all children between the ages of 5 and 16 years. However, despite this constitutional provision, there are still challenges in ensuring that all children have access to quality education, especially in remote and marginalized areas.
  2. Protection from Exploitation: The CRC mandates protection of children from all forms of exploitation, including child labor, child trafficking, and child abuse. Pakistan has taken steps to address these issues through legislative measures and awareness campaigns, but implementation and enforcement remain a challenge.
  3. Right to Health and Nutrition: Children have the right to enjoy the highest attainable standard of health and nutrition. The government has launched various programs to address child health issues, but malnutrition and inadequate healthcare facilities are still problems, particularly in rural areas.
  4. Protection of Children in Conflict Zones: Armed conflicts in certain regions of Pakistan have put children at risk of violence, recruitment by armed groups, and displacement. The CRC emphasizes the protection of children in such situations.
  5. Freedom of Expression and Participation: Children have the right to express their views on matters affecting them and have those views given due weight according to their age and maturity. Pakistan has made efforts to promote child participation, such as through child councils and youth platforms.
  6. Juvenile Justice System: The CRC calls for a separate justice system for children in conflict with the law, emphasizing their rights to due process, fair treatment, and rehabilitation instead of imprisonment. Pakistan has taken some steps in this regard, but the implementation of a child-friendly justice system remains a challenge.
  7. Child Marriage: Child marriage is a significant issue in Pakistan, with a high prevalence in some regions. The minimum age of marriage was set at 18 for males and 16 for females through the Child Marriage Restraint Act of 1929, but enforcement and awareness remain inadequate.
  8. Right to Identity: Every child has the right to a nationality and to be registered at birth. However, a significant number of children in Pakistan do not have birth certificates or any form of legal identity.

While Pakistan has made efforts to improve the situation of children’s rights, there are still significant challenges in implementation and enforcement, particularly due to social and economic factors, cultural practices, and regional disparities. It is essential for the government, civil society, and international community to continue working together to ensure the protection and well-being of all children in Pakistan.

The rights of children in Pakistan are protected and provided for through various legal instruments and policies. Here are some of the key provisions for Pakistani children:

  1. Constitution of Pakistan: The Constitution of Pakistan contains several provisions related to the rights of children. Article 25-A of the Constitution guarantees free and compulsory education for all children between the ages of 5 and 16 years. Additionally, Article 11 of the Constitution prohibits child labor and employment of children below the age of 14 years in hazardous occupations.
  2. United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC): Pakistan is a signatory to the CRC, which outlines the fundamental rights of children and calls for their protection and well-being. The CRC covers a wide range of rights, including the right to life, survival, development, education, protection from abuse and exploitation, and participation in matters affecting them.
  3. Child Protection Laws: Pakistan has enacted several laws to protect children from exploitation, abuse, and neglect. The Pakistan Penal Code (PPC) includes provisions to punish offenses against children, such as cruelty to children, child trafficking, and child abduction.
  4. Child Marriage Restraint Act: The Child Marriage Restraint Act of 1929 sets the minimum age for marriage at 18 years for males and 16 years for females. Despite this law, child marriage remains prevalent in some parts of the country.
  5. National Commission for Child Welfare and Development (NCCWD): The NCCWD is responsible for formulating policies and coordinating activities related to the welfare and development of children in Pakistan.
  6. Education Reforms: The government has introduced various education reforms to increase access to quality education for children. The provision of free textbooks and the establishment of more schools in underserved areas are some examples of such initiatives.
  7. Health Programs: The government has implemented health programs to improve child healthcare, including immunization campaigns and nutrition initiatives.
  8. Juvenile Justice System: The Juvenile Justice System Ordinance provides for separate courts and procedures for children in conflict with the law. The emphasis is on rehabilitation rather than punitive measures.

Despite these provisions, there are still significant challenges in ensuring the effective implementation of children’s rights in Pakistan. Poverty, cultural norms, inadequate infrastructure, and a lack of awareness are some of the barriers to fully realizing the rights of children. It is crucial for the government and civil society to continue working together to address these challenges and ensure the protection and well-being of all children in the country.

Q.2 Discuss the violation of gender equality and major issues in this context.

Gender-based violations are pervasive issues in many societies, including Pakistan. These violations occur when individuals are treated differently or discriminated against based on their gender, often leading to a denial of basic human rights and opportunities. Below are some of the common forms of gender-based violations in Pakistan:

  1. Violence Against Women: Pakistan faces high rates of violence against women, including domestic violence, honor killings, acid attacks, and forced marriages. Many of these crimes go unreported or are not adequately addressed by the legal system due to cultural norms and social stigmas.
  2. Gender Discrimination: Discrimination based on gender is prevalent in various spheres of life, including education, employment, and inheritance rights. Women often have limited access to education and job opportunities, and they may face barriers in participating in public life.
  3. Child Marriage: Child marriage is a significant gender-based violation in Pakistan, especially in rural and marginalized communities. Girls are often married off at a young age, which disrupts their education and exposes them to health risks.
  4. Lack of Reproductive Rights: Women’s reproductive rights are often restricted, and access to family planning and reproductive healthcare services may be limited. This can have serious implications for women’s health and well-being.
  5. Limited Political Participation: Women’s political participation in Pakistan is relatively low compared to men. They are underrepresented in decision-making positions and face significant challenges when contesting elections.
  6. Inadequate Legal Protection: While there are laws in Pakistan that address gender-based violence and discrimination, implementation and enforcement remain major issues. Women may face challenges in accessing justice and legal protection.
  7. Stereotypes and Gender Norms: Societal norms and stereotypes often reinforce traditional gender roles and expectations. These norms can restrict women’s autonomy and perpetuate harmful practices.
  8. Unequal Pay and Economic Disparities: Women in Pakistan often earn less than men for the same work, and they may have limited access to economic resources and opportunities.
  9. Access to Education: While there have been improvements in recent years, access to education for girls remains a challenge in some areas, particularly in rural and conservative regions.
  10. Limited Healthcare Access: Women may face barriers in accessing healthcare services, particularly in relation to maternal health and reproductive care.

Addressing gender-based violations requires a multi-faceted approach that involves legal reforms, awareness campaigns, and changes in societal attitudes. Efforts to empower women, promote gender equality, and challenge harmful gender norms are essential to creating a more inclusive and just society in Pakistan. International and national organizations, along with government agencies and civil society, play crucial roles in advocating for gender equality and combating gender-based violations.

Here’s a concise list of major issues related to gender-based violations in Pakistan:

  1. Patriarchal Society: A deeply entrenched patriarchal system that perpetuates gender inequality and restricts women’s rights and opportunities.
  2. Violence Against Women: High rates of violence against women, including domestic violence, honor killings, acid attacks, and forced marriages.
  3. Child Marriage: Prevalence of child marriage, especially in rural and conservative areas, which denies girls their right to education and health.
  4. Limited Women’s Political Representation: Underrepresentation of women in political positions, leading to a lack of influence in decision-making and policymaking.
  5. Gender Gap in Education: Barriers to girls’ education, including lack of access, cultural norms, and socio-economic challenges.
  6. Economic Disparities: Gender pay gap, limited economic opportunities, and unequal access to resources for women.
  7. Weak Enforcement of Laws: Inadequate implementation and enforcement of laws protecting women’s rights, leading to a culture of impunity for perpetrators.
  8. Gender Stereotypes and Norms: Societal norms and stereotypes that reinforce traditional gender roles and restrict women’s autonomy.
  9. Reproductive Rights: Limited access to family planning and reproductive healthcare services for women.
  10. Lack of Support Services: Insufficient support services, such as shelters and counseling, for women experiencing gender-based violence.
  11. Media Representation: Gender-biased portrayal in media, which can perpetuate stereotypes and influence societal attitudes.
  12. Cultural Practices: Harmful cultural practices that discriminate against women, such as “honor” traditions and restrictions on women’s mobility.
  13. Inadequate Health Services: Limited access to healthcare services, particularly affecting women’s reproductive health and maternal care.
  14. Access to Economic Opportunities: Barriers to women’s participation in the workforce and entrepreneurship.
  15. Educational Curriculum: Gender biases in educational materials and curriculum that reinforce traditional gender roles.

Addressing these major issues requires concerted efforts from various stakeholders, including the government, civil society organizations, religious leaders, community members, and international partners. Promoting gender equality, empowering women, creating awareness, and implementing and enforcing laws protecting women’s rights are essential steps toward building a more inclusive and gender-just society in Pakistan.

Q.3                                                                                            Keeping in view status of minorities in Pakistan, discuss the human rights.           

The status of minorities in Pakistan has been a matter of concern, as they face various challenges related to discrimination, religious freedom, and social inclusion. While Pakistan is an Islamic republic with Islam as the state religion, its constitution also provides for the protection of the rights of religious minorities. However, in practice, minorities have often experienced difficulties in fully enjoying their rights. Some key issues pertaining to the status of minorities in Pakistan include:

  1. Religious Discrimination: Religious minorities, such as Christians, Hindus, Sikhs, and others, have reported facing discrimination in various aspects of life, including education, employment, and access to public services.
  2. Blasphemy Laws: Pakistan’s blasphemy laws have been a contentious issue, as they have been misused to target religious minorities and individuals from different faiths. False accusations under these laws can lead to severe consequences, including lengthy imprisonment or even death sentences.
  3. Forced Conversions: Incidents of forced conversions of young girls and women from religious minority communities to Islam have been reported. These cases raise serious concerns about the protection of religious freedom and human rights.
  4. Limited Political Representation: Despite constitutional provisions for minority representation, religious minorities are often underrepresented in political offices and decision-making bodies.
  5. Violence and Persecution: Religious minority communities have faced violence, attacks on places of worship, and targeted killings, leading to a sense of insecurity and fear among these communities.
  6. Discrimination in Education and Employment: Religious minority students and job seekers often encounter discrimination, limiting their access to quality education and employment opportunities.
  7. Inadequate Protection: The Pakistani government’s efforts to protect the rights of religious minorities have been criticized as insufficient, and there are challenges in ensuring their safety and well-being.
  8. Social Stigma: Religious minority individuals and families may experience social stigma, isolation, and marginalization in society.

It is essential to recognize that not all members of the majority faith support or engage in discrimination against religious minorities. Many Pakistanis advocate for religious tolerance, interfaith harmony, and the protection of minority rights. The government and civil society have taken some steps to address these issues, such as establishing institutions to safeguard minority rights and promoting interfaith dialogue. However, more comprehensive efforts are needed to address the underlying challenges and foster an environment of respect and acceptance for all religious and ethnic communities in Pakistan. Promoting a culture of religious freedom, equality, and respect for diversity can help create a more inclusive and tolerant society for all citizens.

In the context of the status of minorities in Pakistan, human rights play a crucial role in ensuring the protection and well-being of all individuals, regardless of their religious or ethnic background. Human rights are universal, inalienable, and indivisible, and they should apply to everyone, without any discrimination. However, the situation of minorities in Pakistan highlights several human rights challenges and violations. Here are some key human rights issues related to religious minorities in the country:

  1. Right to Freedom of Religion or Belief: The right to freedom of religion or belief is a fundamental human right, as recognized in international human rights law. This right includes the freedom to adopt, practice, and manifest one’s religion or belief individually or in community with others. In Pakistan, religious minorities have faced restrictions and discrimination in exercising this right, particularly due to blasphemy laws and societal pressure.
  2. Protection from Discrimination: The principle of non-discrimination is a core human rights principle. Pakistan’s constitution does contain provisions against discrimination based on religion, race, or ethnicity; however, in practice, religious minorities often face unequal treatment and limited opportunities.
  3. Right to Life and Security: All individuals have the right to life and security of person. Religious minority communities in Pakistan have been targeted in violent attacks, leading to loss of life and a sense of insecurity within these communities.
  4. Freedom of Expression and Opinion: The right to freedom of expression and opinion is essential for an open and democratic society. However, religious minorities in Pakistan may face restrictions in expressing their views, particularly on sensitive religious matters.
  5. Right to Education and Employment: Access to education and employment opportunities is crucial for personal development and economic empowerment. Religious minority students and job seekers often encounter discrimination and limited opportunities.
  6. Right to Political Participation: The right to political participation is essential for ensuring that the interests and concerns of religious minorities are represented in the decision-making process. However, religious minority communities are often underrepresented in political offices.
  7. Protection from Forced Conversions: Forced conversions of young girls and women from religious minority communities to Islam have been reported, which violates their right to freedom of religion and personal autonomy.
  8. Right to Freedom of Assembly and Association: The right to freedom of assembly and association allows individuals to come together and advocate for their rights collectively. However, restrictions on assembly and association may hinder the ability of religious minority communities to engage in peaceful demonstrations and activities.
  9. Right to Property and Housing: Religious minority communities have reported instances of land grabs and property disputes, which threaten their right to own property and secure housing.
  10. Right to Justice and Accountability: Ensuring access to justice and accountability for human rights violations is essential for protecting the rights of religious minorities. However, there have been challenges in holding perpetrators accountable for acts of violence and discrimination against religious minorities.

Addressing these human rights issues requires a comprehensive approach, involving legal reforms, strengthening institutions, promoting awareness and education on human rights, and fostering a culture of tolerance and respect for diversity. It is essential for the Pakistani government, civil society organizations, religious leaders, and international partners to work together to promote and protect the human rights of all individuals, regardless of their religious or ethnic background.

Q.4 Evaluate the role of non-Muslims writers to maintain the interfaith harmony in the society.

Non-Muslim writers can play a crucial role in maintaining interfaith harmony in society through their literary contributions, advocacy, and promotion of dialogue. Here are some ways in which non-Muslim writers can contribute to fostering interfaith harmony:

  1. Promoting Understanding and Empathy: Non-Muslim writers can use their literary works to portray diverse religious perspectives, cultures, and experiences. By creating well-rounded and empathetic portrayals of characters from different faiths, they can help readers develop a deeper understanding and appreciation for religious diversity.
  2. Challenging Stereotypes: Non-Muslim writers can challenge harmful stereotypes and prejudices related to Islam and other religions. Through their writing, they can debunk misconceptions and myths, fostering a more accurate and nuanced understanding of different faiths.
  3. Encouraging Dialogue and Tolerance: Writers can use their platforms to encourage open dialogue and respectful discourse on religious issues. By promoting a culture of tolerance and understanding, they can help bridge divides and foster harmonious coexistence among different religious communities.
  4. Addressing Religious Themes: Non-Muslim writers can explore religious themes in their works, touching on universal human experiences and values shared across different faiths. This can help readers find common ground and build connections beyond religious boundaries.
  5. Advocating for Religious Freedom: Writers can advocate for religious freedom and the rights of religious minorities through their works. By highlighting instances of religious discrimination and persecution, they can raise awareness and galvanize public support for protecting the rights of all religious communities.
  6. Amplifying Minority Voices: Non-Muslim writers can use their platforms to amplify the voices of religious minorities, providing them with greater visibility and recognition. This can contribute to a more inclusive and equitable society.
  7. Writing on Interfaith Cooperation: Non-Muslim writers can produce literature that celebrates instances of interfaith cooperation and solidarity. These narratives can inspire readers to engage in similar acts of unity and collaboration across religious lines.
  8. Supporting Interfaith Initiatives: Writers can actively participate in interfaith initiatives and events, contributing their perspectives and experiences to promote mutual respect and understanding among diverse religious communities.
  9. Building Bridges: Non-Muslim writers can act as bridges between different religious communities by fostering relationships and promoting dialogue. Their role as cultural ambassadors can help bring people together and build trust.
  10. Resisting Religious Intolerance: Non-Muslim writers can use their influence to speak out against religious intolerance, hate speech, and violence. By advocating for a more inclusive and respectful society, they can contribute to the well-being of all religious groups.

In conclusion, non-Muslim writers can play a significant role in maintaining interfaith harmony in society by promoting understanding, challenging stereotypes, fostering dialogue, advocating for religious freedom, and actively participating in interfaith initiatives. Their literary contributions can inspire readers to embrace diversity and work towards a more inclusive and harmonious coexistence among people of different faiths.

Here are some examples of non-Muslim writers who have made significant contributions to maintaining interfaith harmony through their literary works and advocacy:

  1. Karen Armstrong: A prominent religious scholar and author, Karen Armstrong has written extensively on various religious traditions, including Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. Her books, such as “A History of God” and “The Case for God,” emphasize the common threads among religions and promote interfaith understanding.
  2. Elif Shafak: A Turkish-British novelist, Elif Shafak often explores themes of cultural and religious diversity in her works. Her novel “The Bastard of Istanbul” delves into the complexities of identity and interfaith relationships in modern Turkey.
  3. Tahmima Anam: A Bangladeshi writer, Tahmima Anam, has tackled interfaith themes in her novels. Her book “The Good Muslim” explores the aftermath of war and the challenges faced by characters from different religious backgrounds.
  4. Rabbi Jonathan Sacks: Although a religious leader, Rabbi Sacks was also a prolific writer and intellectual who engaged in interfaith dialogue. He emphasized the importance of understanding and respecting different religious perspectives in his works, such as “The Dignity of Difference.”
  5. Khaled Hosseini: Afghan-American author Khaled Hosseini’s novels, such as “The Kite Runner” and “A Thousand Splendid Suns,” provide readers with a window into the lives of characters from diverse religious backgrounds in Afghanistan. His works highlight the human connections that transcend religious differences.
  6. Amitav Ghosh: An Indian writer, Amitav Ghosh, often explores themes of religion and cultural encounters in his novels. His book “The Hungry Tide” delves into the lives of characters from different religious and ethnic backgrounds in the Sundarbans region of India.
  7. Jhumpa Lahiri: An Indian-American author, Jhumpa Lahiri, has explored the complexities of cultural and religious identity in her works. Her collection of short stories, “Interpreter of Maladies,” delves into the lives of characters from different backgrounds, reflecting the universality of human experiences.
  8. Rupi Kaur: A Canadian poet and illustrator, Rupi Kaur, has gained popularity for her poems that touch on themes of identity, love, and cultural diversity. Her work resonates with readers from various religious backgrounds and emphasizes the power of shared emotions.

These writers and many others use their literary talents to promote interfaith understanding, challenge stereotypes, and encourage empathy and tolerance among people of different religious beliefs. Through their works, they foster a sense of unity and common humanity, contributing to the maintenance of interfaith harmony in society.

Q.5 Discuss the Role of Civil Society regarding protections of children and women in Pakistan.                                                                                  

The role of civil society in Pakistan regarding the protection of children and women is vital, as it complements the efforts of the government and other stakeholders in addressing various challenges and advocating for the rights and well-being of these vulnerable groups. Civil society organizations (CSOs) are non-governmental entities that work independently to promote social causes and create positive change in society. Here are some ways in which civil society plays a crucial role in the protection of children and women in Pakistan:

  1. Advocacy and Awareness: Civil society organizations raise awareness about the rights and issues faced by children and women in Pakistan. Through campaigns, workshops, and outreach programs, they educate the public and policymakers on the importance of protecting the rights and interests of these vulnerable groups.
  2. Legal and Policy Advocacy: CSOs advocate for the formulation and implementation of laws and policies that protect the rights of children and women. They engage with lawmakers and policymakers to influence legal reforms that address issues such as child marriage, domestic violence, and gender-based discrimination.
  3. Providing Support Services: Civil society organizations often run shelters and support centers for women and children who are victims of violence, abuse, or exploitation. These facilities provide a safe space and necessary resources for survivors to rebuild their lives.
  4. Capacity Building and Training: CSOs conduct capacity-building workshops and training programs for individuals, communities, and professionals working in the field of child and women’s protection. This helps strengthen the response to issues such as child protection, gender-based violence, and access to education and healthcare.
  5. Monitoring and Reporting: Civil society organizations monitor the implementation of laws and policies related to child and women’s rights. They also document human rights violations and produce reports that shed light on the challenges faced by these groups, pushing for accountability and justice.
  6. Community Engagement: CSOs work closely with communities to promote gender equality, challenge harmful practices, and foster an environment that protects the rights and dignity of women and children.
  7. Intersectoral Collaboration: Civil society organizations collaborate with government agencies, law enforcement, healthcare providers, and educational institutions to create a holistic approach to addressing the issues faced by children and women.
  8. Empowerment Initiatives: CSOs focus on empowering women and children through various initiatives, including skill development, education, and economic empowerment programs. These efforts aim to increase their self-reliance and agency.
  9. Research and Data Collection: Civil society organizations conduct research and collect data on child and women’s rights issues, helping to inform evidence-based policies and interventions.
  10. Crisis Response and Relief: In times of emergencies and disasters, civil society organizations play a critical role in providing immediate relief and support to affected children and women.

The collective efforts of civil society, along with government agencies and international organizations, are essential in addressing the challenges faced by children and women in Pakistan. By working together, these stakeholders can create an environment that promotes gender equality, protects the rights of children, and ensures the well-being of women, leading to a more inclusive and just society.

Here are some more examples of the role of civil society in Pakistan regarding the protection of children and women:

  1. Helpline Services: Civil society organizations operate helpline services for women and children who need immediate assistance or counseling. These helplines provide a confidential and accessible platform for individuals to seek help and support.
  2. Legal Aid and Advocacy: Some CSOs offer legal aid services to women and children who cannot afford legal representation. They assist in navigating the legal system, filing complaints, and seeking justice for survivors of violence and abuse.
  3. Education and Awareness Programs: Civil society organizations conduct awareness-raising campaigns in schools, colleges, and communities to educate children, parents, and caregivers about child rights, child protection, and gender equality.
  4. Skill Development and Livelihood Programs: CSOs run skill development and livelihood programs for women to enhance their employability and economic independence. These initiatives help women secure better opportunities and break free from economic dependency.
  5. Child Rights Monitoring Committees: Civil society organizations establish child rights monitoring committees at the community level to monitor the well-being of children and report cases of child rights violations.
  6. Women’s Empowerment Centers: Some CSOs establish women’s empowerment centers that offer a range of services, including vocational training, healthcare facilities, counseling, and legal support.
  7. Advocacy for Legislative Reforms: Civil society organizations advocate for legislative reforms to strengthen child protection laws, address issues like child labor, and ensure the implementation of women’s rights legislation.
  8. Community-Based Rehabilitation: CSOs engage in community-based rehabilitation programs for children and women who have been victims of violence, trafficking, or exploitation. These programs aim to reintegrate survivors into society and provide psychosocial support.
  9. Engagement with Religious Leaders: Civil society organizations work with religious leaders and clerics to promote messages of tolerance, respect, and gender equality within religious communities.
  10. Media Campaigns: Some CSOs run media campaigns to challenge gender stereotypes, raise awareness about child and women’s rights, and promote positive role models.
  11. Anti-Harassment Initiatives: Civil society organizations advocate for and establish anti-harassment policies in workplaces, educational institutions, and public spaces to protect women from harassment and abuse.
  12. Youth Engagement Programs: CSOs involve young people in initiatives promoting gender equality and child protection. These programs empower youth to become advocates for positive change in their communities.
  13. Social and Cultural Events: Civil society organizations organize events and festivals that celebrate cultural diversity and inclusivity, fostering interfaith harmony and unity.
  14. Data Collection and Research: CSOs conduct research and collect data on child and women’s rights issues, providing valuable insights for evidence-based policy development.
  15. Networking and Collaboration: Civil society organizations collaborate with each other, government agencies, international organizations, and community-based groups to enhance the impact of their work and promote coordinated efforts for child and women’s protection.

The diverse efforts of civil society in Pakistan demonstrate their commitment to safeguarding the rights and well-being of children and women. Through their multifaceted initiatives, these organizations contribute significantly to building a more equitable and just society for all.

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