Course: Foreign policy of Pakistan-II (9355)

 Allama Iqbal open University, Islamabad

Level: BS Pak Study (2.5 Year)

Semester: Spring, 2023

               ASSIGNMENT No.1

Q.1 Despite harbouring manifest aspiration for nuclear weapons by Pakistan the US ignored its nuclear non-proliferation obligations and kept on providing economic and military assistance to Pakistan. How had the US bypassed its own nuclear non-proliferation obligations with regard to Pakistan from 1980 to 1988?    

Pakistan’s nuclear program became a matter of concern for the international community due to its pursuit of nuclear weapons. The US did express its disapproval of Pakistan’s nuclear activities, and at various times, economic and military assistance to Pakistan was subject to certain conditions and restrictions under US law. These conditions were linked to Pakistan’s nuclear program, human rights issues, and democratic governance.

However, during the Cold War era, the US perceived Pakistan as an important ally against the Soviet Union, and this strategic consideration sometimes led to pragmatic decisions regarding economic and military aid. Despite concerns about nuclear proliferation, the US provided aid to Pakistan to maintain regional stability, counter Soviet influence, and support Pakistan’s role in the Afghan-Soviet War.

It is essential to note that the US has also played a role in efforts to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and has cooperated with various international non-proliferation regimes. The US has encouraged Pakistan to exercise restraint in its nuclear program and engage in non-proliferation efforts.

Since my information is limited to 2021, I cannot provide details about developments or changes in US-Pakistan relations beyond that point. The geopolitical landscape can change over time, and the US’s approach to its relationships with different countries, including Pakistan, may evolve accordingly. To get the most up-to-date information, I recommend checking reliable news sources.

During the 1980s, the United States’ relationship with Pakistan was heavily influenced by geopolitical considerations, particularly the Soviet-Afghan War. Pakistan, being a neighboring country, played a crucial role in supporting the Afghan resistance against the Soviet invasion. This strategic importance led the US to overlook or bypass certain aspects of its nuclear non-proliferation obligations concerning Pakistan.

Here are some key factors that contributed to the US bypassing its nuclear non-proliferation obligations with regard to Pakistan from 1980 to 1988:

  1. Afghan-Soviet War: The US saw Pakistan as a vital partner in providing support to the Afghan Mujahideen, who were resisting the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The Reagan administration believed that supporting Pakistan’s efforts in Afghanistan was critical to countering Soviet expansionism during the Cold War.
  2. Pressing Security Concerns: The US viewed Pakistan’s nuclear program as a pressing security concern, but the need for Pakistan’s cooperation in the Afghan-Soviet War took precedence. The US government decided to provide economic and military assistance to Pakistan despite its nuclear ambitions to maintain Pakistan’s support for the Afghan resistance.
  3. The Symington Amendment: The Symington Amendment, enacted in 1976, restricts US foreign aid to countries that pursue nuclear weapons outside the framework of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Given concerns about Pakistan’s nuclear program, the US could technically have suspended aid to Pakistan under this law. However, the US government found ways to bypass or waive the restrictions due to its strategic interests in the region.
  4. The Solarz Amendment: The Solarz Amendment, passed in 1985, further tightened restrictions on non-NPT countries, including Pakistan, receiving US aid. It required the president to certify annually that the recipient country did not possess a nuclear explosive device. Despite Pakistan’s nuclear program being an open secret, the US administration made the required certification by not explicitly acknowledging Pakistan’s nuclear status.
  5. Legal Maneuvering: To maintain the flow of aid to Pakistan, the US administration used legal interpretations that allowed them to argue that Pakistan did not “possess” a nuclear explosive device, even though it was widely known that Pakistan was pursuing nuclear weapons.

It is essential to understand that the US-Pakistan relationship during this period was influenced by a complex mix of strategic interests, Cold War dynamics, and regional security concerns. While the US did provide aid to Pakistan despite its nuclear program, there were also diplomatic efforts to persuade Pakistan to exercise restraint and not openly conduct nuclear tests.

Overall, the US-Pakistan relationship during the 1980s was a delicate balancing act between strategic interests and non-proliferation concerns. The US sought to maintain its partnership with Pakistan for geopolitical reasons while trying to limit Pakistan’s nuclear ambitions through diplomacy and conditional aid.

Q.2 Critically analyze the role of the USSR during East Pakistan crisis. How had the USSR effectively neutralized the sympathizers and supporters of Pakistan during that crisis?

The East Pakistan crisis, also known as the Bangladesh Liberation War, was a significant event that led to the creation of Bangladesh as an independent nation in 1971. During this crisis, the role of the Soviet Union (USSR) was complex and had both short-term and long-term implications for the region and international relations. Here’s a critical analysis of the USSR’s role during the East Pakistan crisis:

  1. Support for Bangladesh Independence: The USSR played a crucial role in supporting the cause of Bangladesh’s independence from Pakistan. The Soviet leadership viewed the conflict as an opportunity to weaken its regional rival, Pakistan, which was considered a close ally of the United States. The USSR provided diplomatic, moral, and limited military support to the Mukti Bahini (Bangladeshi liberation fighters) and openly criticized Pakistan for its actions in East Pakistan.
  2. Geopolitical Considerations: The USSR’s involvement in the East Pakistan crisis was driven by geopolitical considerations. The Soviet leadership sought to counter the US influence in South Asia and gain a foothold in the region. Supporting the independence of Bangladesh was seen as a way to diminish American influence in Pakistan, a key US ally during the Cold War.
  3. The Soviet-Indian Alliance: The crisis further strengthened the Soviet-Indian alliance. India supported the cause of Bangladesh and played a decisive role in the conflict by providing a safe haven and support to Bengali refugees and the Mukti Bahini. The USSR aligned its stance with India, which was already an important ally in the region, and this strengthened the Soviet presence in South Asia.
  4. Diplomatic Efforts: The USSR, along with other countries, tried to mediate between Pakistan and Bangladesh during the crisis to find a peaceful resolution. The Soviet Union was a member of the United Nations Security Council and used its influence to push for negotiations and ceasefires. However, these diplomatic efforts were not successful in ending the hostilities.
  5. Impact on US-Pakistan Relations: The USSR’s support for Bangladesh independence further strained US-Pakistan relations. Pakistan, a US ally, felt betrayed by the Soviet stance and perceived it as interference in its internal affairs. The crisis led to a deterioration of US-Pakistan ties, with implications for regional stability and US interests in South Asia.
  6. Long-term Regional Impact: The creation of Bangladesh as an independent nation had significant implications for the region’s geopolitical dynamics. It led to a reconfiguration of power relationships in South Asia and weakened Pakistan’s position as a regional player. Bangladesh emerged as a new nation with its own interests and foreign policy orientation.
  7. Humanitarian Assistance: Apart from political and military support, the USSR provided humanitarian assistance to Bangladesh during and after the conflict. The USSR’s assistance in rebuilding infrastructure and supporting development projects helped establish stronger ties between the two countries.

In conclusion, the USSR played a significant role during the East Pakistan crisis by supporting the cause of Bangladesh independence and furthering its geopolitical interests in the region. Its alignment with India and support for the Mukti Bahini contributed to the creation of Bangladesh as an independent nation. The crisis also had broader implications for US-Pakistan relations and regional dynamics in South Asia. The USSR’s involvement showcased the complexities of Cold War politics in the context of a localized conflict.

During the East Pakistan crisis, the USSR adopted various diplomatic, political, and military strategies to effectively neutralize the sympathizers and supporters of Pakistan. The crisis was a significant moment in the context of the Cold War, and the USSR saw an opportunity to exploit the situation to its advantage. Here are some ways the USSR worked to counter Pakistan’s allies and supporters during the crisis:

  1. Diplomatic Isolation: The USSR utilized its diplomatic influence to isolate Pakistan on the international stage. It condemned Pakistan’s actions in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) and accused it of human rights violations. The USSR leveraged its position in the United Nations Security Council and other international forums to gain support for the cause of Bangladesh and to denounce Pakistan’s actions.
  2. Support for Bangladesh Liberation: The USSR openly supported the cause of Bangladesh’s independence, thereby aligning itself with India, which was the principal supporter of the Mukti Bahini (Bangladeshi liberation fighters). By backing Bangladesh, the USSR further distanced Pakistan from potential allies and support from other countries.
  3. Military and Intelligence Support: The USSR provided military aid to India, which played a critical role in the conflict by supporting the Mukti Bahini and sheltering Bengali refugees. This support bolstered India’s position and strengthened the Soviet-Indian alliance, which had implications for regional stability and Pakistan’s isolation.
  4. Propaganda and Information Warfare: The USSR engaged in propaganda and information warfare to discredit Pakistan and its actions in East Pakistan. Soviet media and diplomatic channels highlighted alleged atrocities committed by the Pakistani military, painting Pakistan in a negative light internationally.
  5. Regional Diplomacy: The USSR engaged with neighboring countries, such as Nepal and Bhutan, to discourage them from supporting Pakistan during the crisis. The aim was to limit Pakistan’s options for garnering regional support and isolating it further.
  6. Economic Pressure: The USSR used economic pressure and incentives to sway countries away from supporting Pakistan. For example, it offered economic assistance and trade benefits to countries that supported the cause of Bangladesh or abstained from supporting Pakistan.
  7. Leveraging Cold War Rivalries: The USSR capitalized on the Cold War rivalry between the US and the Soviet Union to further distance Pakistan from potential support. The USSR sought to portray Pakistan as a pro-American regime and a tool of US interests in the region, making it less appealing for other countries to align with Pakistan.
  8. Political and Diplomatic Efforts: The USSR engaged in high-level political and diplomatic efforts to mediate between Pakistan and Bangladesh. While these efforts were not entirely successful, they demonstrated the USSR’s involvement and commitment to the crisis, further solidifying its position as a key player in the region.

Overall, the USSR effectively neutralized sympathizers and supporters of Pakistan during the East Pakistan crisis by using a combination of diplomatic maneuvers, political alliances, military support, and propaganda efforts. Its actions contributed to Pakistan’s diplomatic isolation and weakened its position on the international stage, ultimately helping to pave the way for the creation of Bangladesh as an independent nation.

Q.3 What is the history of Durand Line? Why it had become the bone of contention between Afghanistan and Pakistan? Elaborate with cogent arguments.

The Durand Line is a controversial 2,640-kilometer (1,640-mile) border that separates Afghanistan and Pakistan. It was established in 1893 by Sir Mortimer Durand, a British diplomat, and it marked the boundary between British India (now Pakistan) and Afghanistan. The history of the Durand Line is complex and has been a source of tension and disputes between Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Here’s a brief overview of the history of the Durand Line:

  1. British-Afghan Relations: In the late 19th century, the British Empire and Afghanistan were engaged in what is known as the “Great Game,” a geopolitical struggle for influence in Central Asia. The British sought to secure their colonial possessions in the Indian subcontinent, while Afghanistan aimed to maintain its independence and territorial integrity.
  2. Durand-Afghan Agreement: In 1893, Sir Mortimer Durand, representing the British, and Amir Abdur Rahman Khan of Afghanistan signed the Durand-Afghan Agreement. The agreement aimed to fix the borders between British India and Afghanistan and to end disputes over tribal territories in the region.
  3. Delimitation of the Line: The Durand Line was drawn through tribal and mountainous regions, often without the full understanding or consent of the local tribes. The process of demarcation was not well-documented, and some areas were demarcated based on the British perception of spheres of influence rather than natural geographical boundaries.
  4. Rejection by Successive Afghan Governments: The Durand Line has been a contentious issue since its inception. After the British withdrew from India in 1947, the new Pakistani government inherited the Durand Line as part of its western border. However, successive Afghan governments have never fully recognized the Durand Line as an international border. Instead, they consider it an arbitrary and imposed boundary that divides the Pashtun ethnic group and separates Afghan territory.
  5. Afghanistan’s Claim to Pashtun Territories: Afghanistan claims that parts of Pakistan’s Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province and Balochistan province rightfully belong to Afghanistan and were wrongly ceded to British India under duress. The dispute over the Durand Line has been a major point of contention in Afghanistan-Pakistan relations, leading to periodic tensions between the two neighboring countries.
  6. Current Status: The Durand Line remains the internationally recognized border between Afghanistan and Pakistan, and it is recognized by the United Nations and the international community. However, its contested nature and Afghanistan’s historical rejection of the line have contributed to strained relations between the two countries.

In conclusion, the Durand Line is a historical border that separates Afghanistan and Pakistan. Its establishment in 1893 was part of British colonial efforts to secure their interests in the region. Despite being an internationally recognized border, it has been a source of tension and disputes between Afghanistan and Pakistan, with Afghanistan contesting the legitimacy of the line and claiming certain territories as its own. The Durand Line remains a sensitive and complex issue that continues to influence bilateral relations between the two countries.

The Durand Line has become a bone of contention between Afghanistan and Pakistan for several historical, political, and ethnic reasons. Here are some cogent arguments to elaborate on why the Durand Line remains a contentious issue:

  1. Historical Context: The Durand Line was drawn during the colonial era when Afghanistan was under British influence, and the agreement was signed between the British and Amir Abdur Rahman Khan of Afghanistan in 1893. Afghanistan argues that the agreement was imposed upon them without proper representation and consultation with the local tribes and that it did not have the legitimacy to decide on the territorial boundaries of Pashtun-inhabited areas.
  2. Ethnic and Tribal Ties: The Durand Line divided the Pashtun ethnic group, the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan, and created artificial borders that separated Pashtun communities on both sides of the line. Pashtuns have a strong sense of cultural, historical, and ethnic unity that transcends the border, leading to calls for the reunification of Pashtun-inhabited areas under one political entity.
  3. Claims on Pakistani Territory: Afghanistan claims that parts of Pakistan’s Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province and Balochistan province rightfully belong to Afghanistan and were wrongly ceded to British India under duress during the colonial era. This territorial dispute has been a significant point of contention, fueling Afghan nationalism and the demand for the return of what they see as their historical land.
  4. Influence on Afghan Politics: The Durand Line has been instrumentalized in Afghan politics, particularly during periods of instability or political rivalries. Political leaders in Afghanistan have used the issue to mobilize nationalist sentiments, gain public support, and challenge rivals by questioning their stance on the Durand Line.
  5. Cross-Border Insurgency and Terrorism: The porous nature of the Afghanistan-Pakistan border along the Durand Line has facilitated the movement of militants and insurgents between the two countries. This has led to security concerns for both Afghanistan and Pakistan, with each country accusing the other of harboring terrorists and insurgents.
  6. Geopolitical Rivalries: The Durand Line issue has been influenced by broader geopolitical rivalries in the region. Pakistan’s historical alliance with the United States during the Cold War and its strategic partnership with China have further strained its relations with Afghanistan, which has often sought support from other regional and international actors to assert its claims.
  7. Lack of Recognition: Afghanistan’s refusal to recognize the Durand Line as an international border has been a constant source of tension. Pakistan considers the Durand Line an internationally recognized border, while Afghanistan continues to officially maintain that it is a temporary and artificial division.

In conclusion, the Durand Line has become a bone of contention between Afghanistan and Pakistan due to historical, political, ethnic, and geopolitical factors. Afghanistan’s rejection of the line as a legitimate international border, coupled with its claims on certain Pakistani territories and the shared ethnic ties of the Pashtun community, has fueled tensions between the two neighboring countries. The issue continues to impact bilateral relations and has broader implications for regional stability and security. Resolving the Durand Line dispute remains a complex challenge that requires diplomatic efforts, mutual understanding, and historical reconciliation.

Q.4 How had Pakistan fought the case of the liberation of Morocco in the United Nations? Explain in detail.

The liberation of Morocco refers to the process through which Morocco gained independence from French and Spanish colonial rule. The struggle for liberation was a complex and multifaceted movement that involved various political, social, and armed resistance efforts.

Key events and developments in the liberation of Morocco include:

  1. Colonial Rule: Morocco had been under French and Spanish colonial rule since the late 19th and early 20th centuries, respectively. The French protectorate was established in 1912, and the Spanish protectorate was established in the northern part of the country.
  2. Emergence of Independence Movements: Over time, nationalist and independence movements began to emerge in Morocco, seeking an end to colonial rule and the establishment of an independent Moroccan state.
  3. Istiqlal Party: The Istiqlal Party (Independence Party) played a crucial role in the struggle for liberation. It was founded in 1944 and became the leading nationalist party in the country, advocating for Moroccan sovereignty and self-determination.
  4. Allal al-Fassi and Mohammed V: Prominent nationalist leaders like Allal al-Fassi and Sultan Mohammed V played significant roles in mobilizing the masses and voicing demands for independence.
  5. Manifesto of Independence: In 1944, the Istiqlal Party issued the Manifesto of Independence, which demanded the end of the French protectorate and the restoration of full sovereignty to Morocco.
  6. Independence Proclamation: On January 11, 1944, Sultan Mohammed V delivered a speech in Tangier, asserting Morocco’s claim to independence. He stated that the country was committed to achieving sovereignty and national unity.
  7. Sultan Mohammed V’s Exile: The French authorities, concerned about the nationalist sentiments, exiled Sultan Mohammed V to Madagascar in 1953. This action sparked widespread protests and resistance across the country.
  8. Return of Sultan Mohammed V: Due to the growing resistance and international pressure, Sultan Mohammed V was allowed to return to Morocco in 1955.
  9. The End of the French Protectorate: Negotiations between Morocco and France culminated in the signing of the Treaty of Fez on March 2, 1956. This treaty recognized Morocco’s independence, effectively ending the French protectorate.
  10. The Spanish Protectorate: In 1956, negotiations with Spain led to the end of the Spanish protectorate in northern Morocco. Spanish troops withdrew from the region, and Morocco regained full sovereignty over its territory.
  11. Independence Day: On March 2, 1956, Morocco officially gained independence, and the country celebrates this day as its Independence Day.

The liberation of Morocco marked a significant milestone in the struggle for independence and self-determination in North Africa. It was a testament to the resilience and determination of the Moroccan people in their fight against colonial oppression, leading to the establishment of a sovereign and independent nation.

Pakistan fought the case of the liberation of Morocco in the United Nations

There is no historical record or evidence to suggest that Pakistan directly fought the case of the liberation of Morocco in the United Nations. The struggle for Morocco’s liberation from French and Spanish colonial rule was primarily led by the Moroccan people themselves and their nationalist and independence movements. The United Nations did play a role in facilitating the process of decolonization, but Pakistan’s involvement in this specific case is not documented.

Pakistan, being a member of the United Nations, may have supported general principles of decolonization and the right to self-determination, which are fundamental values enshrined in the UN Charter. Pakistan has a long history of advocating for the rights of self-determination and decolonization in various international forums. However, there is no known instance where Pakistan actively and directly fought the case of Morocco’s liberation at the United Nations.

It is important to note that the decolonization process was not limited to one specific case but involved numerous countries across Africa, Asia, and the Pacific who were seeking independence from colonial powers. The United Nations played a significant role in facilitating the process of decolonization through various resolutions, mandates, and diplomatic efforts.

The liberation of Morocco was a result of the collective efforts of the Moroccan people, their nationalist leaders, and the broader international context of decolonization movements in the mid-20th century. The diplomatic and political processes that led to Morocco’s independence primarily involved negotiations and agreements between the colonial powers and Moroccan leaders, rather than direct interventions or advocacy on behalf of other countries like Pakistan in the United Nations.

Q.5 Discuss in detail Pakistan’s relations with Turkey from 1947 to 1971.

Pakistan’s relations with Turkey from 1947 to 1971 were characterized by a strong sense of camaraderie and shared values. Both countries enjoyed a warm and friendly relationship, based on common historical, cultural, and geopolitical factors. Here is a detailed overview of Pakistan-Turkey relations during this period:

  1. Common Historical and Cultural Ties: Pakistan and Turkey shared historical and cultural ties dating back centuries. Both countries have predominantly Muslim populations and are inheritors of rich Islamic traditions. This common religious heritage played a vital role in fostering a sense of brotherhood and solidarity between the two nations.
  2. Bilateral Agreements and Treaties: Shortly after Pakistan’s independence in 1947, the two countries established diplomatic relations, and over the years, they signed several bilateral agreements and treaties to strengthen their ties. These agreements covered various areas, including trade, defense cooperation, cultural exchanges, and economic collaboration.
  3. Military Cooperation: Pakistan and Turkey developed significant military cooperation during this period. They conducted joint military exercises, exchanged military delegations, and collaborated in the training of armed forces personnel. Turkish military experts provided support and expertise to Pakistan, especially during times of regional tensions.
  4. Participation in Regional Forums: Both countries actively participated in various regional forums, including the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) and the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO). These organizations aimed to counter Soviet influence during the Cold War and fostered defense and security cooperation among member states.
  5. Support during Crises: Turkey supported Pakistan during times of regional crises, such as the Indo-Pakistani wars in 1947-48, 1965, and 1971. Turkey was among the countries that supported Pakistan’s position during these conflicts, emphasizing the importance of respecting national sovereignty and territorial integrity.
  6. Economic Cooperation: Pakistan and Turkey sought to enhance economic ties through trade and investment. Both countries worked to strengthen economic cooperation and explore opportunities for mutual development. However, economic ties during this period were limited due to the geographical distance and other priorities.
  7. Cultural and Educational Exchanges: Pakistan and Turkey encouraged cultural and educational exchanges to promote mutual understanding and appreciation of each other’s cultures. These exchanges facilitated the sharing of literature, music, art, and educational experiences between the two nations.
  8. Kashmir Issue: Turkey, in line with its stance on the Kashmir conflict, supported Pakistan’s position on the issue during this period. Turkey recognized the significance of the Kashmir dispute and advocated for a peaceful resolution in accordance with UN resolutions.

However, it is important to note that Pakistan-Turkey relations faced some challenges during the period from 1947 to 1971. The emergence of Bangladesh as an independent nation in 1971 strained relations between Pakistan and Turkey. Turkey recognized Bangladesh soon after its independence, and Pakistan’s ties with Turkey were affected by the developments during the Bangladesh Liberation War.

In conclusion, Pakistan’s relations with Turkey from 1947 to 1971 were marked by strong bilateral ties, underpinned by common historical, cultural, and religious bonds. Both countries cooperated in various fields, including defense, regional forums, and cultural exchanges. However, challenges emerged with the emergence of Bangladesh, impacting the dynamics of Pakistan-Turkey relations in the early 1970s.

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