Communication Theories Part-II (5636) ASSIGNMENT NO.2

studio shot of a beautiful young woman wearing bold eye makeup

BS/ M.SC (MASS COMMUNICATION)      

Q. 1  Why cultivation theory and spiral of silence theory are considered as theories of powerful effects model.

Cultivation theory is often considered a theory of powerful effects because it posits that media exposure can have significant and cumulative effects on individuals’ perceptions of social reality, particularly regarding their beliefs about the world, society, and social norms. Developed by George Gerbner and Larry Gross in the 1970s, cultivation theory suggests that prolonged exposure to media content, particularly television, can shape viewers’ perceptions of reality over time, leading to the cultivation of specific attitudes, beliefs, and values.

There are several reasons why cultivation theory is viewed as a theory of powerful effects:

  1. Cumulative and Long-Term Effects: Cultivation theory emphasizes the cumulative and long-term effects of media exposure on individuals’ perceptions and beliefs. According to the theory, repeated exposure to consistent patterns of media content can gradually shape viewers’ perceptions of social reality, leading to the cultivation of shared beliefs and assumptions about the world.
  2. Widespread Influence: Cultivation theory suggests that the effects of media exposure are pervasive and affect a broad cross-section of the population. Television, in particular, has been identified as a powerful medium for cultivating perceptions of social reality due to its widespread reach and influence. As television became a dominant form of mass media in the 20th century, cultivation theory became increasingly relevant in understanding its impact on public perceptions.
  3. Resonance with Real-Life Experiences: Cultivation theory posits that the media’s portrayal of social reality may resonate with viewers’ real-life experiences, reinforcing their perceptions of social norms, values, and behaviors. As a result, individuals may come to accept media representations as accurate reflections of the world around them, even if those representations are exaggerated or distorted.
  4. Cultural Indicators Project: The Cultural Indicators Project, led by George Gerbner and colleagues, provided empirical evidence to support cultivation theory by examining the content and effects of television programming over time. The project found consistent patterns of representation in television content, particularly regarding themes of violence, crime, and interpersonal relationships, which were associated with viewers’ perceptions of social reality.
  5. Limited Variation in Media Content: Cultivation theory suggests that the homogenization and repetition of media content contribute to its powerful effects on audience perceptions. As media content becomes increasingly standardized and formulaic, viewers are exposed to consistent messages and themes that reinforce certain cultural norms and stereotypes.

Overall, cultivation theory is considered a theory of powerful effects because it highlights the pervasive and long-lasting influence of media exposure on individuals’ perceptions of social reality. By focusing on the cumulative effects of media content, cultivation theory underscores the importance of critically examining media representations and their impact on audience attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.

The Spiral of Silence theory, proposed by German political scientist Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann in 1974, is considered a theory of powerful effects because it highlights the significant impact of media on individuals’ willingness to express their opinions and conform to prevailing social norms. The theory posits that individuals are more likely to speak out on issues that they perceive to be widely supported or accepted, while remaining silent on topics they perceive to be unpopular or controversial. Here’s why the Spiral of Silence theory is regarded as a powerful effects model:

  1. Conformity and Social Pressure: The Spiral of Silence theory emphasizes the powerful influence of social pressure and conformity on individuals’ communication behavior. According to the theory, individuals are motivated to align their opinions with perceived majority viewpoints in order to avoid social isolation, rejection, or ridicule. As a result, they may withhold dissenting opinions or refrain from expressing minority viewpoints, even if they personally disagree with prevailing attitudes.
  2. Media as Opinion Climate Setter: The theory suggests that the media play a crucial role in shaping individuals’ perceptions of public opinion and influencing their willingness to speak out on controversial issues. Media representations can create a perceived opinion climate by highlighting certain viewpoints, framing issues in specific ways, and amplifying dominant voices while marginalizing dissenting perspectives. Individuals may internalize these media messages and adjust their own opinions and behaviors accordingly, contributing to the spiral of silence phenomenon.
  3. Fear of Isolation and Marginalization: The Spiral of Silence theory highlights individuals’ fear of isolation and marginalization as a key factor driving their reluctance to express dissenting opinions. Individuals may fear negative social consequences, such as social exclusion, ostracism, or backlash, if they deviate from perceived majority viewpoints or challenge prevailing norms. This fear of isolation can lead individuals to self-censor or suppress their true opinions in order to avoid social disapproval or conflict.
  4. Self-Reinforcing Spiral: The theory posits that the spiral of silence process is self-reinforcing, with minority viewpoints becoming increasingly marginalized as individuals perceive them to be less prevalent or acceptable. As individuals withhold dissenting opinions, the perceived majority opinion becomes further entrenched, leading to a narrowing of public discourse and a stifling of alternative perspectives. This self-reinforcing spiral perpetuates a cycle of silence and conformity, further consolidating the power of media and social norms in shaping public discourse.
  5. Real-World Applications: The Spiral of Silence theory has been applied to various real-world contexts, including political communication, public opinion formation, and social movements. It helps explain phenomena such as the silencing of dissent in authoritarian regimes, the polarization of public opinion in democratic societies, and the impact of media framing on public discourse. By shedding light on the mechanisms underlying individuals’ willingness to speak out or remain silent, the theory offers valuable insights into the dynamics of opinion formation and expression in modern society.

Overall, the Spiral of Silence theory is considered a powerful effects model because it underscores the pervasive influence of media and social norms on individuals’ communication behavior, highlighting the pressures individuals face to conform to perceived majority viewpoints and the chilling effect this can have on public discourse.

Q. 2  Discuss functions and role of Pakistan mass media for society?     

The mass media in Pakistan serve a variety of functions and play several roles within society, reflecting the diverse needs, interests, and challenges of the Pakistani population. Here are some of the key functions and roles of mass media in Pakistan:

  1. Informative Function:
    1. One of the primary functions of mass media in Pakistan is to provide information to the public on a wide range of topics, including current events, politics, economy, social issues, culture, and entertainment.
    1. Newspapers, television news programs, radio broadcasts, and online news websites serve as important sources of information, keeping the public informed about local, national, and international developments.
    1. In addition to traditional news media, social media platforms and digital news outlets have emerged as popular sources of information, offering real-time updates, citizen journalism, and alternative perspectives on issues of public interest.
  2. Educational Function:
    1. Mass media in Pakistan play an educational role by disseminating knowledge, promoting literacy, and raising awareness about various educational initiatives, programs, and opportunities.
    1. Educational television programs, documentaries, and public service announcements address topics such as health, hygiene, education, environmental conservation, and civic responsibility, aiming to educate and empower the population, particularly in rural and underserved areas.
  3. Entertainment Function:
    1. Mass media serve as a source of entertainment and leisure for the Pakistani population, offering a wide array of programming, including dramas, sitcoms, reality shows, music, films, and sports coverage.
    1. Television channels, radio stations, and digital platforms provide diverse entertainment options catering to different tastes, preferences, and demographics, reflecting the cultural diversity and richness of Pakistani society.
  4. Socialization Function:
    1. Mass media play a crucial role in socializing individuals and shaping cultural norms, values, and behaviors within Pakistani society.
    1. Television dramas, films, and advertisements often reflect and reinforce societal norms and values related to gender roles, family dynamics, relationships, religion, and morality, influencing viewers’ perceptions and attitudes.
    1. Social media platforms also contribute to socialization processes by facilitating communication, interaction, and the sharing of ideas and experiences among individuals and communities.
  5. Watchdog Function:
    1. Mass media in Pakistan serve as watchdogs by monitoring government activities, exposing corruption, injustice, and abuse of power, and holding public officials and institutions accountable.
    1. Investigative journalism, news reporting, and editorial commentary play a critical role in promoting transparency, accountability, and good governance, contributing to the democratic process and the protection of citizens’ rights and freedoms.
  6. Cultural Preservation and Promotion:
    1. Mass media in Pakistan contribute to the preservation and promotion of Pakistani culture, language, and heritage through the production and dissemination of cultural content, including music, art, literature, and traditional folk performances.
    1. Television channels, radio stations, and digital platforms showcase Pakistani cultural traditions, customs, and artistic expressions, fostering pride and appreciation among the Pakistani population and promoting cultural exchange and understanding both domestically and internationally.

Overall, the mass media in Pakistan fulfill a range of functions and roles within society, serving as sources of information, education, entertainment, socialization, and cultural expression. By fulfilling these functions, mass media contribute to the development, cohesion, and progress of Pakistani society while also reflecting its diversity, challenges, and aspirations.

Here’s an example illustrating the various functions and roles of mass media in Pakistan:

Television Drama Addressing Social Issues:

One of the most prominent examples of the multifaceted role of mass media in Pakistan is the television drama serial “Udaari,” which aired on Hum TV in 2016. “Udaari” tackled sensitive social issues such as child sexual abuse, gender-based violence, and societal stigma, while also providing entertainment and raising awareness.

Informative Function: Through its storyline, “Udaari” shed light on the prevalence of child sexual abuse in Pakistani society, raising awareness about an issue that was often taboo and neglected in mainstream discourse. The drama portrayed the experiences of victims, the challenges they faced in seeking justice, and the importance of community support and intervention.

Educational Function: “Udaari” served an educational purpose by providing viewers with information about the dynamics of child sexual abuse, the psychological impact on survivors, and the legal avenues available for seeking redress. The drama also highlighted the importance of child protection mechanisms, counseling services, and advocacy efforts to address the issue effectively.

Entertainment Function: While addressing serious social issues, “Udaari” also offered entertainment value through its engaging storyline, well-developed characters, and high production quality. The drama captivated audiences with its compelling narrative, emotional depth, and memorable performances by the cast.

Socialization Function: By portraying characters from diverse backgrounds and social strata, “Udaari” contributed to socialization processes by challenging stereotypes, promoting empathy, and fostering dialogue about sensitive topics such as sexual abuse, consent, and victim blaming. The drama encouraged viewers to reflect on their own attitudes and behaviors towards survivors of abuse and marginalized communities.

Watchdog Function: Through its depiction of systemic failures and societal injustices, “Udaari” served as a watchdog by holding a mirror to Pakistani society and highlighting the need for systemic reforms and social change. The drama prompted discussions about the role of law enforcement, the judiciary, and civil society in addressing child sexual abuse and protecting vulnerable populations.

Cultural Promotion: While addressing universal themes of human rights and social justice, “Udaari” also showcased Pakistani culture, traditions, and values through its setting, dialogue, and music. The drama celebrated the resilience and strength of Pakistani women and communities, emphasizing the importance of solidarity and collective action in the face of adversity.

In summary, “Udaari” exemplifies how mass media in Pakistan can fulfill multiple functions and roles within society, simultaneously serving as a platform for entertainment, education, awareness-raising, social critique, and cultural expression. Through its impactful storytelling and thought-provoking themes, the drama contributed to public discourse, social change, and the empowerment of marginalized voices in Pakistani society.

Q. 3  What do you know about Gan’s Enduring Values in the News?

Gan’s Enduring Values in the News is a theory proposed by communication scholar Doris A. Graber, which emphasizes the enduring values that are reflected in news coverage across different media outlets and time periods. The theory suggests that certain core values and principles shape the way news is selected, framed, and presented to audiences, contributing to the continuity and stability of journalistic norms and practices. Here’s an overview of Gan’s Enduring Values in the News:

  1. Roots of the Theory:
    1. Doris Graber introduced the concept of enduring values in the news in her book “Mass Media and American Politics” published in 1976. The theory was further developed in subsequent editions of the book and in Graber’s other works on media and politics.
    1. Graber drew inspiration from sociologist Herbert Gans’ research on news values, which identified criteria used by journalists to determine the newsworthiness of events and stories.
  2. Key Principles:
    1. Gan’s Enduring Values in the News identifies several core principles and values that shape journalistic decision-making and news content. These values reflect societal norms, professional standards, and cultural expectations regarding the role of the news media in informing and engaging the public.
    1. Some of the key enduring values identified by Graber include:
      1. Accuracy and Truthfulness: Journalists strive to present accurate, factual information to the public, adhering to principles of truthfulness and objectivity in their reporting.
      1. Fairness and Balance: News coverage should strive to provide balanced and fair representations of different perspectives and viewpoints on a given issue, allowing audiences to form their own informed opinions.
      1. Independence and Autonomy: Journalists should maintain independence from external influences, such as political parties, advertisers, or special interests, to ensure the integrity and credibility of their reporting.
      1. Public Interest and Accountability: News media have a responsibility to serve the public interest by providing information that is relevant, meaningful, and of significance to the audience. They also play a watchdog role by holding public officials and institutions accountable for their actions.
      1. Ethical Considerations: Journalists should adhere to ethical standards and guidelines in their reporting, respecting the dignity, privacy, and rights of individuals featured in news stories.
  3. Application to News Coverage:
    1. Gan’s Enduring Values in the News suggests that these core principles and values serve as guiding principles for journalists and news organizations in their day-to-day decision-making processes.
    1. While news coverage may vary in terms of topics, formats, and styles, the underlying values remain consistent and shape the overall tone, credibility, and impact of news content.
    1. Graber argues that these enduring values help to maintain the legitimacy and trustworthiness of the news media in the eyes of the public, fostering a sense of accountability and responsibility among journalists and news organizations.

In summary, Gan’s Enduring Values in the News theory highlights the enduring principles and values that underpin journalistic practices and news content, emphasizing the importance of accuracy, fairness, independence, and ethical considerations in news reporting. By recognizing and upholding these values, journalists and news organizations can fulfill their vital role in informing, educating, and engaging the public in democratic societies.

An example illustrating Gan’s Enduring Values in the News could be the coverage of a controversial political issue by different news outlets. Let’s take the example of the debate surrounding climate change policy in the context of a hypothetical country, “Nation X.”

  1. Accuracy and Truthfulness:
    1. News outlets prioritize factual accuracy in their reporting on climate change policy, citing scientific evidence and expert analysis to inform the public about the causes, consequences, and potential solutions to climate change.
    1. They strive to present accurate data on greenhouse gas emissions, temperature trends, and environmental impacts, avoiding misinformation or false claims that may distort public understanding of the issue.
  2. Fairness and Balance:
    1. News coverage of climate change policy in Nation X reflects a diversity of perspectives and viewpoints, allowing for balanced and fair representation of different stakeholders, including government officials, environmental activists, industry representatives, and scientific experts.
    1. Journalists seek to provide context and analysis that give audiences a comprehensive understanding of the complex political, economic, and social factors influencing climate policy decisions.
  3. Independence and Autonomy:
    1. News outlets maintain independence from political influence and special interests in their coverage of climate change policy, adhering to professional standards of journalistic integrity and editorial autonomy.
    1. They strive to report objectively on government initiatives, legislative proposals, and public debates surrounding climate policy, without undue influence or bias from external stakeholders.
  4. Public Interest and Accountability:
    1. News media in Nation X prioritize coverage of climate change policy as a matter of public interest, recognizing the significance of environmental issues for the well-being of society and future generations.
    1. They hold public officials and policymakers accountable for their actions and decisions related to climate policy, investigating potential conflicts of interest, regulatory failures, or instances of environmental degradation that may impact public health and safety.
  5. Ethical Considerations:
    1. Journalists adhere to ethical guidelines and standards in their reporting on climate change policy, respecting the dignity, privacy, and rights of individuals affected by environmental policies and practices.
    1. They consider the ethical implications of their reporting, striving to avoid sensationalism, fear-mongering, or misinformation that may undermine public trust in the media or exacerbate public apathy towards climate change.

By upholding these enduring values in their coverage of climate change policy, news outlets in Nation X contribute to informed public discourse, raise awareness about environmental issues, and hold decision-makers accountable for their actions, ultimately serving the public interest and promoting a more sustainable future.

Q. 4  What do you know about chain and cross ownership in mass media? What are the major national media chains in Pakistan?

Chain and cross-ownership in mass media refer to two distinct but related phenomena that have significant implications for media diversity, concentration of ownership, and potential influence over public discourse. Here’s an overview of each concept:

  1. Chain Ownership:
    1. Chain ownership occurs when a single media conglomerate or company owns multiple media outlets within the same sector or across different media platforms. These outlets may include newspapers, television stations, radio stations, magazines, websites, or digital platforms.
    1. Chains can range in size from small, regional media groups to large, multinational corporations that dominate the media landscape. Chain ownership allows companies to achieve economies of scale, streamline operations, and leverage resources across multiple outlets.
    1. While chain ownership can lead to efficiencies and cost savings for media companies, it also raises concerns about media consolidation, editorial homogenization, and the potential for reduced diversity of voices and perspectives in the media landscape.
    1. Critics argue that chain ownership may result in uniformity of content, centralized control over editorial decisions, and reduced competition, limiting the variety of viewpoints and diminishing media pluralism.
  2. Cross-Ownership:
    1. Cross-ownership occurs when a single media company or conglomerate owns outlets in multiple media sectors or platforms, such as owning both television stations and newspapers, radio stations and television networks, or print publications and digital platforms.
    1. Cross-ownership allows media companies to expand their reach and influence across different segments of the media industry, diversify their revenue streams, and integrate content production and distribution across various platforms.
    1. However, cross-ownership raises concerns about media concentration, vertical integration, and potential conflicts of interest. It can lead to synergies between different media outlets owned by the same company, but it may also result in monopolistic practices, market dominance, and undue influence over public opinion.
    1. Regulatory agencies and policymakers often scrutinize cross-ownership arrangements to ensure compliance with antitrust laws, media ownership regulations, and standards of media plurality and diversity.

Overall, chain and cross-ownership in mass media have become prevalent in many countries, driven by market forces, technological advancements, and changes in regulatory frameworks. While these ownership structures offer advantages in terms of efficiency and profitability for media companies, they also raise concerns about media concentration, editorial independence, and the democratic function of the media. Striking a balance between promoting competition, innovation, and diversity while preventing undue consolidation and control remains a challenge for policymakers and regulators in the media industry.

In Pakistan, several major national media chains own multiple outlets across various media platforms. These media chains exert significant influence over the country’s media landscape and play a central role in shaping public discourse. Some of the major national media chains in Pakistan include:

  1. Jang Group of Newspapers:
    1. The Jang Group is one of the largest media conglomerates in Pakistan, with a diverse portfolio of newspapers, television channels, and digital platforms. Its flagship newspaper, Daily Jang, is one of the oldest and most widely circulated Urdu-language newspapers in Pakistan.
    1. The group also owns several other newspapers, including The News International (English-language), Awam (Urdu-language), and Akhbar-e-Jehan (Urdu-language), as well as the English-language news website, Geo.tv.
    1. In addition to print media, the Jang Group operates multiple television channels, including Geo News, Geo Entertainment, Geo Super, and Geo Tez, which offer news, entertainment, sports, and lifestyle programming.
  2. Dawn Media Group:
    1. The Dawn Media Group is another prominent media conglomerate in Pakistan, known for its flagship English-language newspaper, Dawn, which is one of the country’s oldest and most respected newspapers.
    1. In addition to the newspaper, the Dawn Media Group owns Dawn News, an English-language news channel, and Dawn.com, the group’s online news portal. Dawn News provides 24-hour news coverage and analysis on national and international events, politics, business, and culture.
  3. Express Media Group:
    1. The Express Media Group is one of the largest media conglomerates in Pakistan, with a diverse portfolio of newspapers, television channels, and digital platforms.
    1. The group’s flagship newspaper, Daily Express, is one of the leading Urdu-language newspapers in Pakistan, known for its bold and independent journalism. The group also owns The Express Tribune, an English-language newspaper, and Express Urdu, an Urdu-language newspaper.
    1. In addition to print media, the Express Media Group operates several television channels, including Express News, Express Entertainment, and Hero TV, which offer news, entertainment, and lifestyle programming.
  4. ARY Group:
    1. The ARY Group is a major media conglomerate in Pakistan, with interests in television broadcasting, print media, and digital platforms.
    1. The group’s flagship television channel, ARY Digital, is one of the leading entertainment channels in Pakistan, known for its diverse programming, including dramas, reality shows, and talk shows.
    1. The ARY Group also owns several other television channels, including ARY News (a leading Urdu-language news channel), ARY Musik (a music channel), and ARY Zindagi (an entertainment channel).
  5. Lahore Rang Media Group:
    1. The Lahore Rang Media Group is a prominent media conglomerate based in Lahore, Pakistan, with interests in television broadcasting, print media, and digital platforms.
    1. The group’s flagship television channel, Lahore Rang TV, focuses on regional programming, including news, current affairs, entertainment, and cultural shows, catering to audiences in Lahore and surrounding areas.

These are some of the major national media chains in Pakistan, each with a significant presence across multiple media platforms, including print, television, and digital media. These media chains play a central role in shaping public opinion, influencing political discourse, and disseminating information to the Pakistani population.

Q. 5  Discuss how media work as a tool for maintaining status quo and agent of the Powerful class of the society?

Media can serve as a tool for maintaining the status quo by reinforcing existing power structures, social norms, and dominant ideologies. Here’s how:

  1. Selective Coverage and Framing: Media outlets often selectively cover and frame news stories in a way that reflects and reinforces the interests of those in power. This can involve prioritizing certain issues over others, framing news stories in ways that favor the status quo, or marginalizing dissenting voices and alternative perspectives. By shaping the public agenda and framing public discourse, media can perpetuate the status quo and maintain the dominance of existing power structures.
  2. Representation of Social Groups: Media representations of social groups, such as racial and ethnic minorities, women, LGBTQ+ individuals, and marginalized communities, can either challenge or reinforce stereotypes and inequalities. When media portray these groups in ways that reinforce existing stereotypes and power dynamics, they contribute to the maintenance of the status quo by perpetuating social hierarchies and inequalities. Conversely, when media challenge stereotypes and amplify marginalized voices, they have the potential to disrupt the status quo and promote social change.
  3. Commercial Interests and Advertising: Media organizations often rely on advertising revenue to sustain their operations, which can lead them to prioritize the interests of advertisers and corporate sponsors over the public interest. This can manifest in the production of content that aligns with the interests of advertisers, promotes consumerism and materialism, and reinforces capitalist ideologies. By prioritizing commercial interests over public service values, media can contribute to the maintenance of the status quo by promoting consumerist culture and economic inequality.
  4. Gatekeeping and Agenda-Setting: Media gatekeepers, such as editors, producers, and news directors, play a crucial role in determining which stories are covered, how they are framed, and which voices are included or excluded from public discourse. When gatekeepers are aligned with existing power structures and ideologies, they may selectively promote narratives and perspectives that support the status quo while marginalizing dissenting viewpoints. Similarly, media agenda-setting can influence public perceptions by determining which issues are deemed important or worthy of attention, thereby shaping public opinion and maintaining the status quo.
  5. Reproduction of Dominant Ideologies: Media content often reflects and reproduces dominant ideologies, such as capitalism, patriarchy, white supremacy, and heteronormativity. Through the representation of social norms, values, and behaviors, media can reinforce the legitimacy and stability of existing power structures and social hierarchies. By framing social inequalities as natural or inevitable, media can perpetuate the status quo and discourage collective action for social change.

In summary, media can function as a tool for maintaining the status quo by selectively framing news stories, reinforcing stereotypes and inequalities, prioritizing commercial interests, shaping public perceptions, and reproducing dominant ideologies. By doing so, media can uphold existing power structures and social hierarchies, while also influencing public attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs.

Media can function as an agent of the powerful class in society by serving their interests, amplifying their voices, and perpetuating existing power structures. Here are several ways in which media can act as agents of the powerful class:

  1. Control of Ownership and Resources: Media outlets are often owned or controlled by individuals or corporations with significant economic and political power. These media owners can use their resources and influence to shape media content and narratives in ways that align with their interests and agendas. By controlling the means of production and dissemination of media content, the powerful class can ensure that their perspectives and priorities are prioritized and amplified in the media.
  2. Gatekeeping and Agenda-Setting: Media gatekeepers, such as editors, producers, and news directors, play a crucial role in determining which stories are covered, how they are framed, and which voices are included or excluded from public discourse. When these gatekeepers are aligned with the powerful class, they may selectively promote narratives and perspectives that support their interests while marginalizing dissenting viewpoints. Similarly, media agenda-setting can influence public perceptions by determining which issues are deemed important or worthy of attention, thereby shaping public opinion in favor of the powerful class.
  3. Selective Coverage and Framing: Media outlets can selectively cover and frame news stories in ways that reflect and reinforce the interests of the powerful class. This can involve prioritizing certain issues over others, framing news stories in ways that favor the status quo, or marginalizing dissenting voices and alternative perspectives. By shaping the public agenda and framing public discourse, media can perpetuate the interests of the powerful class and maintain existing power structures.
  4. Access and Influence: The powerful class often has greater access to media platforms and resources, allowing them to disseminate their messages and viewpoints to a wider audience. They may have the resources to purchase advertising space, sponsor content, or even own media outlets outright. This access and influence can enable the powerful class to shape public opinion, influence public policy, and protect their own interests through media manipulation and persuasion.
  5. Reproduction of Dominant Ideologies: Media content often reflects and reproduces dominant ideologies, such as capitalism, patriarchy, white supremacy, and heteronormativity. By framing social norms, values, and behaviors in ways that support the interests of the powerful class, media can reinforce the legitimacy and stability of existing power structures. Through the representation of social inequalities as natural or inevitable, media can perpetuate the status quo and discourage collective action for social change.

Overall, media can function as agents of the powerful class by advancing their interests, shaping public opinion, and perpetuating existing power structures through selective coverage, framing, and agenda-setting. By doing so, media can reinforce the influence and dominance of the powerful class in society, while also shaping public perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors in ways that support their interests.

https://www.youtube.com/@faizagul1969

                                          

23 thoughts on “Communication Theories Part-II (5636) ASSIGNMENT NO.2”

  1. Hi there

    This is Mike Marlow

    Let me introduce to you our latest research results from our constant SEO feedbacks that we have from our plans:

    https://www.strictlydigital.net/product/semrush-backlinks/

    The new Semrush Backlinks, which will make your frilmi.com SEO trend have an immediate push.
    The method is actually very simple, we are building links from domains that have a high number of keywords ranking for them. 

    Forget about the SEO metrics or any other factors that so many tools try to teach you that is good. The most valuable link is the one that comes from a website that has a healthy trend and lots of ranking keywords.
    We thought about that, so we have built this plan for you

    Check in detail here:
    https://www.strictlydigital.net/product/semrush-backlinks/

    Cheap and effective

    Try it anytime soon

    Regards
    Mike Marlow

    mike@strictlydigital.net

  2. Profitati de oportunitatea de a imbunatati atat performanta cat si stilul cu incaltamintea de top de la Puma. Vizitati site-ul nostru acum si alegeti modelele care va definesc cel mai bine personalitatea si nevoile!Sunteti in cautarea unor pantofi de inalta calitate? Explorati oferta noastra exclusiva pe incaltaminte unde veti gasi cea mai variata selectie de incaltaminte Puma. Indiferent daca doriti pantofi pentru jogging, optiuni elegante pentru uz zilnic sau incaltaminte robusta pentru antrenamente intense, Puma Moldova are tot ce va trebuie pentru a satisface fiecare preferinta.

  3. This service is perfect for boosting your local business’ visibility on the map in a specific location.

    We provide Google Maps listing management, optimization, and promotion services that cover everything needed to rank in the Google 3-Pack.

    More info:
    https://www.speed-seo.net/ranking-in-the-maps-means-sales/

    Thanks and Regards
    Mike Jones

    PS: Want a ONE-TIME comprehensive local plan that covers everything?
    https://www.speed-seo.net/product/local-seo-bundle/

  4. Hi there,

    My name is Mike from Monkey Digital,

    Allow me to present to you a lifetime revenue opportunity of 35%
    That’s right, you can earn 35% of every order made by your affiliate for life.

    Simply register with us, generate your affiliate links, and incorporate them on your website, and you are done. It takes only 5 minutes to set up everything, and the payouts are sent each month.

    Click here to enroll with us today:
    https://www.monkeydigital.org/affiliate-dashboard/

    Think about it,
    Every website owner requires the use of search engine optimization (SEO) for their website. This endeavor holds significant potential for both parties involved.

    Thanks and regards
    Mike Gilbert

    Monkey Digital

  5. Hi there,

    I have reviewed your domain in MOZ and have observed that you may benefit from an increase in authority.

    Our solution guarantees you a high-quality domain authority score within a period of three months. This will increase your organic visibility and strengthen your website authority, thus making it stronger against Google updates.

    Check out our deals for more details.
    https://www.monkeydigital.co/domain-authority-plan/

    NEW: Ahrefs Domain Rating
    https://www.monkeydigital.co/ahrefs-seo/

    Thanks and regards
    Mike Taft

  6. Вызвать проститутку devkiru.com

    Реальный мужской отдых постоянно пользовался высоким спросом. Рекомендуем Вам познакомиться с подборкой самых лучших девушек Москвы на сайте devkiru.com уже сейчас. Выложенные фото настоящие и проверены, указаны параметры девушек, цены и перечень оказываемых услуг. Заходи, выбирай, звони и наслаждайся полной жизнью.

    По запросу индивидуалки семеновская Вы на правильном пути. Наш проверенный онлайн сайт доставляет превосходный отдых 18 плюс. Здесь представлены: индивидуалки, массажистки, элитные красавицы, частные интим-объявления. А еще Вы можете отыскать желаемую девочку по параметрам: по станции метро, по возрасту, росту, адресу, цене. Всё для Вашего удобства.

    Подобные услуги всегда пользуются запросом, а список девочек только растет. У нас на devkiru.com возможно купить такие услуги, как: секс классический, анальный, с семейной парой, минет без презерватива, минет в машине, куннилингус, окончание на грудь и многие другие. А также можно купить стриптиз, лесби легкое для Вас и Ваших друзей.

    Если Вы планировали найти проститутки стрешнево в Москве, то быстрее переходите на вышеупомянутый сайт. Мы предлагаем купить самых дешевых проституток в столице. Но в этом вопросе, цена не означает плохое качество. Всего лишь у девушек в данной категории не так много практики, и принимают они в апартаментах чуть дальше от центра и не очень фешенебельных. Не стоит волноваться, что дешевая цена может подпортить Ваш отдых, правильнее — напротив. Шанс классно провести свой отдых по выгодной стоимости-вдвойне приятнее.

  7. Greetings

    I have just verified your SEO on frilmi.com for the current search visibility and saw that your website could use an upgrade.

    We will enhance your ranks organically and safely, using only state of the art AI and whitehat methods, while providing monthly reports and outstanding support.

    More info:
    https://www.digital-x-press.com/unbeatable-seo/

    Regards
    Mike Lamberts

    Digital X SEO Experts

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top