AIOU Exam preparation National & International Current Affairs-II (5634)

Course: National & International Current Affairs-II (5634)

Mass Communication Semester-IV

Important Questions with Answers prepared by Faiza Gul, FRilmi Team (Errors and omissions acceptable) Disclaimer: All Questions and Answers are Based on self assessment and It is only Guess material.

Q.1      Why has Russia invaded Ukraine? Explain the repercussions of this invasion being faced by global community.

The situation between Russia and Ukraine is a complex and multifaceted issue involving historical, political, and geopolitical factors. It is important to note that while Russia has denied direct involvement in the conflict, there is a widespread consensus among the international community that Russia has provided support to separatist movements in Eastern Ukraine and has annexed Crimea. Here are some key factors that may help explain the reasons behind Russia’s actions:

Historical and Cultural Factors:

Ukraine and Russia have historical ties, as they were both part of the Soviet Union. The majority of the population in Crimea is ethnically Russian, and there are significant Russian-speaking populations in Eastern Ukraine.

Russia has viewed Ukraine as a part of its historical and cultural sphere of influence, which has influenced its policies towards the country.

Geopolitical Interests:

Ukraine’s strategic location and its resources, including natural gas pipelines and access to the Black Sea, have been of significant interest to Russia.

Russia has sought to maintain influence in its “near abroad” and counter what it perceives as encroachment by Western powers, particularly NATO, in its traditional sphere of influence.

Political and Ethnic Divisions:

Ukraine has experienced internal political divisions, with different regions having varying degrees of allegiance to Russia or a desire for closer ties with the West.

Russia has used these divisions to support separatist movements and promote its interests in Ukraine.

Repercussions faced by the global community due to the invasion include:

Violation of International Law:

Russia’s actions in Ukraine, including the annexation of Crimea, have been widely condemned as a violation of international law and the principle of territorial integrity.

The invasion has undermined the established norms and principles of international relations, such as the prohibition of the use of force and respect for sovereign borders.

Destabilization of Eastern Europe:

The conflict has led to a significant deterioration of regional security and stability in Eastern Europe. It has heightened tensions between Russia and NATO, resulting in increased military presence and exercises in the region.

The invasion has also raised concerns among neighboring countries about the potential for similar actions targeting their sovereignty and territorial integrity.

Sanctions and Economic Impact:

In response to Russia’s actions, the global community, led by the United States and the European Union, imposed economic sanctions on Russia. These sanctions have had a significant impact on Russia’s economy and its relations with the international community.

The sanctions have also affected global economic stability, particularly in sectors such as energy and finance.

Humanitarian Consequences:

The conflict has resulted in a humanitarian crisis, with thousands of people killed and millions displaced from their homes. The civilian population in Eastern Ukraine has suffered from the direct consequences of the conflict, including indiscriminate shelling, disruption of basic services, and a lack of access to humanitarian aid.

Diplomatic Efforts and Peace Process:

The global community has been actively engaged in diplomatic efforts to resolve the conflict and find a peaceful solution. These efforts have included negotiations, ceasefire agreements, and peace talks under the auspices of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the Normandy format.

However, progress has been slow and challenging, with continued violations of ceasefires and difficulty in reaching a comprehensive resolution.

It is important to note that the situation in Ukraine and the repercussions faced by the global community are ongoing and subject to change. The resolution of the conflict will require continued diplomatic efforts, adherence to international law, and a commitment to peaceful negotiations.

Q.2            Examine the current state of relations between Pakistan and Saudi Arabia in the backdrop of historical context.

Pakistan and Saudi Arabia share a long-standing and historically significant relationship based on common religious, cultural, and strategic interests. Here is an examination of the relations between Pakistan and Saudi Arabia in the backdrop of historical context:

Islamic Bonds and Historical Ties:

Pakistan and Saudi Arabia have deep-rooted religious connections as both countries have a majority Muslim population and consider themselves as leaders of the Muslim world.

Pakistan’s founder, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, maintained close ties with the Saudi leadership, and Saudi Arabia supported Pakistan during its early years.

The annual Hajj pilgrimage to Saudi Arabia is of great importance to Pakistani Muslims, further strengthening the people-to-people and religious bonds between the two countries.

Economic Cooperation and Energy:

Saudi Arabia has been an important economic partner for Pakistan. It has provided financial assistance and investment in various sectors, including infrastructure development, energy, and agriculture.

The Kingdom has also played a significant role in providing employment opportunities for Pakistanis, particularly in the form of remittances from Pakistani expatriates working in Saudi Arabia.

Defense and Security Cooperation:

Pakistan and Saudi Arabia have a history of defense cooperation, with Pakistan providing military personnel and expertise to the Saudi armed forces.

During the Gulf War in 1990-1991, Pakistan sent troops to support Saudi Arabia’s defense against Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait.

The two countries have also engaged in joint military exercises and defense collaboration, including arms sales and training programs.

Strategic Alignment and Regional Dynamics:

Pakistan and Saudi Arabia have shared interests in regional stability and countering common security threats.

Both countries have concerns regarding Iran’s regional influence, and they have often aligned their positions on regional issues, including the conflicts in Afghanistan, Yemen, and Syria.

Saudi Arabia has been a key ally for Pakistan in times of economic challenges, providing financial support and assistance.

Diplomatic Support:

Saudi Arabia has consistently supported Pakistan diplomatically, particularly during times of international scrutiny or challenges.

The Kingdom has backed Pakistan’s stance on the Kashmir issue and supported its membership in international forums, such as the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).

Evolving Dynamics:

While the historical ties between Pakistan and Saudi Arabia remain strong, the dynamics of the relationship have seen some shifts in recent years.

Pakistan’s increasing engagement with other regional powers, such as China and Iran, has introduced new dimensions to its foreign policy and regional alignments.

Moreover, Saudi Arabia’s evolving regional approach, including its closer ties with India and efforts to diversify its partnerships, has prompted Pakistan to reassess its position and pursue a more balanced approach in its relations with different Gulf countries.

It is important to note that while the historical context provides a foundation for the relationship, the specific dynamics and priorities can evolve based on changing regional and global dynamics, domestic policies, and strategic considerations. The relationship between Pakistan and Saudi Arabia continues to be multifaceted, encompassing religious, economic, defense, and diplomatic dimensions.

Q.3            Evaluate the role of US in politics of the development countries with particular focus on Pakistan. Support your answer with relevant examples. / Discuss history of ups and downs in US-Pakistan relations during last 75 Year’s?


The United States has played a significant role in the politics of developing countries, including Pakistan, throughout history. Its involvement has varied depending on geopolitical interests, security concerns, economic considerations, and the promotion of democracy and human rights. Here is an evaluation of the role of the United States in the politics of developing countries, with a particular focus on Pakistan:

Economic Aid and Development:

The United States has been a major donor of economic aid to developing countries, including Pakistan. Financial assistance provided by the US has supported infrastructure development, education, healthcare, and poverty alleviation programs.

For instance, the United States has been a leading contributor of aid to Pakistan through programs like the Kerry-Lugar-Berman Act, which aimed to promote economic and social development in the country.

Military Assistance and Security Cooperation:

The United States has provided military assistance to developing countries, including Pakistan, to enhance their security capabilities and combat terrorism.

Pakistan has received substantial military aid from the US, particularly during the Cold War era and in the post-9/11 period. This assistance has included military equipment, training, and financial support to bolster Pakistan’s counterterrorism efforts.

Geopolitical Interests:

The United States has pursued its geopolitical interests in developing countries, including Pakistan, as part of its broader global strategy. These interests include countering terrorism, promoting stability, and ensuring access to key resources and trade routes.

Pakistan’s strategic location, especially its proximity to Afghanistan and its nuclear capabilities, has made it a crucial partner for the United States in its regional security initiatives.

Democratic Governance and Human Rights:

The United States has advocated for democratic governance and human rights in developing countries, including Pakistan. It has supported civil society organizations, promoted free and fair elections, and urged respect for human rights and the rule of law.

The US has exerted pressure on the Pakistani government to improve its human rights record and take steps towards democratic reforms. This has included withholding or conditioning aid based on progress in areas such as religious freedom, freedom of expression, and women’s rights.

Influence on Policy and Politics:

The United States has exerted influence on the policy and politics of developing countries, including Pakistan, through diplomatic channels, economic leverage, and conditional assistance.

US policymakers have sought to shape the political landscape in Pakistan, pushing for reforms, supporting specific political actors or parties, and expressing concerns over issues such as nuclear proliferation, counterterrorism efforts, and regional stability.

It is important to note that the role of the United States in the politics of developing countries, including Pakistan, is complex and can have both positive and negative consequences. While US involvement can bring economic and security benefits, it can also be perceived as interference in domestic affairs and can lead to political polarization or resentment. The impact of US involvement in the politics of developing countries varies depending on the specific context and the alignment of interests between the two countries involved.

Q 4  Syrian Arab Republic is passing through the hardest times of its history. Analyze the war situation in Syria with reference to international politics.

The war situation in Syria has indeed been a complex and devastating conflict, with significant implications for international politics. Here is an analysis of the war in Syria in the context of international politics:

Proxy War and Geopolitical Interests:

The Syrian conflict has involved various international actors with differing interests, leading to a proxy war dynamic. Countries such as Russia, Iran, and Turkey have supported the Syrian government, while other nations like the United States, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar have backed opposition groups.

Geopolitical interests play a crucial role, with regional and global powers vying for influence and control in the region. Syria’s strategic location, access to the Mediterranean, and its alliances with countries like Russia have heightened its significance in the international arena.

Regional Power Struggles:

The Syrian conflict has exacerbated existing rivalries and power struggles in the Middle East. The competition for regional influence between Iran and Saudi Arabia has played out in Syria, with each supporting opposing factions.

The conflict has also heightened tensions between Turkey and Kurdish groups seeking autonomy in northern Syria, impacting regional dynamics and Turkey’s own security concerns.

Humanitarian Crisis and Refugee Crisis:

The war in Syria has resulted in a severe humanitarian crisis, with millions of Syrians displaced, infrastructure destroyed, and countless lives lost. The scale of the crisis has had significant implications for neighboring countries and Europe due to the large influx of Syrian refugees.

The refugee crisis has strained international relations and led to debates over burden-sharing, border control, and humanitarian assistance.

International Interventions and Diplomatic Efforts:

Various international interventions and diplomatic efforts have been made to address the Syrian conflict. The United Nations, through its Security Council, has sought to facilitate negotiations, implement ceasefires, and provide humanitarian aid.

International conferences, such as the Geneva peace talks, have aimed to bring the warring parties to the negotiating table, although progress has been slow and challenging due to the divergent interests and complexities of the conflict.

Impact of Terrorism:

The rise of extremist groups, most notably the Islamic State (ISIS), has further complicated the conflict. The global fight against terrorism has influenced the strategies and actions of international actors involved in the Syrian conflict.

The presence of extremist groups has raised concerns about regional and global security, leading to international efforts to counter terrorism in Syria.

Human Rights Concerns:

The war in Syria has been characterized by grave human rights violations, including indiscriminate attacks on civilians, the use of chemical weapons, and mass displacement. These violations have prompted international condemnation and calls for accountability.

It is important to note that the situation in Syria is complex and multifaceted, with no simple solutions. The war’s impact on international politics is significant, shaping regional dynamics, fueling rivalries, and raising questions about global governance and humanitarian responsibility. Resolving the Syrian conflict will require sustained diplomatic efforts, cooperation among international actors, and a focus on the well-being and aspirations of the Syrian people.

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