AIOU Exam Preparation course Language Skills and Communication Abilities (964)

msc mass communication

Question no. 1 What are different speech styles? Also highlight the use of linguistic communication.

Speech style refers to the way in which we communicate with others, including the tone, vocabulary, and level of formality we use in different situations. There are several different speech styles, each of which is appropriate for different contexts and audiences.

  1. Formal speech style: This type of speech is typically used in professional or academic settings, such as job interviews or presentations. It is characterized by a sophisticated vocabulary, complex sentence structures, and a serious, authoritative tone. For example, a professor delivering a lecture on a complex topic may use a formal speech style.
  2. Informal speech style: This type of speech is more casual and relaxed than formal speech, and is often used in everyday conversations with friends or family members. It typically

includes more slang, contractions, and colloquial expressions than formal speech. For example, when chatting with friends, we may use an informal speech style to make the conversation more comfortable and friendly.

  • Technical speech style: This type of speech is used in contexts where specialized knowledge is required, such as in scientific or medical fields. It often involves the use of technical terms and jargon that may not be easily understood by the general public. For example, a surgeon discussing a medical procedure may use a technical speech style to communicate with other medical professionals.
  • Persuasive speech style: This type of speech is used to persuade or convince others to take a particular course of action or adopt a particular viewpoint. It often involves the use of persuasive techniques such as emotional appeals, logical arguments, and rhetorical devices. For example, a politician giving a speech to convince voters to support a particular policy may use a persuasive speech style.
  • Intimate speech style: This type of speech is used in personal, one-on-one conversations, and is characterized by a high level of familiarity and intimacy. It often includes personal stories, private jokes, and emotional expressions that would not be appropriate in more formal or public settings. For example, when confiding in a close friend, we may use an intimate speech style to express our deepest thoughts and feelings.

Also highlight the use of linguistic communication.

Linguistic communication refers to the use of language to convey information and ideas between individuals. It is a vital tool for human communication and allows us to share our thoughts, feelings, and experiences with others. There are several ways in which linguistic communication is used in our daily lives, including:

  1. Expressing emotions and feelings: Linguistic communication allows us to express our emotions and feelings to others. We use words, tone of voice, and body language to communicate our joy, sadness, anger, or fear.
  • Sharing information: We use linguistic communication to share information with others, such as news, opinions, ideas, and knowledge. This can be done through various means, including conversations, speeches, presentations, or written communication.
  • Building relationships: Linguistic communication helps us build and maintain relationships with others. We use language to establish trust, show respect, and express empathy towards others.
  • Solving problems: Effective linguistic communication is also critical in problem-solving situations. We use language to identify problems, generate ideas, and negotiate solutions with others.
  • Persuasion: Linguistic communication can be used to persuade others to take a particular course of action or to adopt a particular viewpoint. This can be done through various  techniques, including logical arguments, emotional appeals, and rhetorical devices.

In summary, linguistic communication is a fundamental aspect of human interaction and plays a crucial role in how we express ourselves, build relationships, and solve problems in our daily lives.

Question No. 2 What is sentences? Discuss its different clauses in detail.

A sentence is a grammatical unit that consists of one or more words conveying a complete thought or idea. It is the basic building block of written and spoken language. In English, sentences typically have a subject, a verb, and often an object. The subject is the person or thing that performs the action or about which something is stated, the verb is the action or state of being, and the object is the recipient of the action.

Here are some examples of sentences:

  1. “I love chocolate.” – This sentence has the subject “I,” the verb “love,” and the object “chocolate.” It expresses a complete thought and conveys that the speaker has a positive feeling towards chocolate.
  2. “She plays the piano beautifully.” – In this sentence, the subject is “she,” the verb is “plays,” and the object is “the piano.” It also includes the adverb “beautifully” to describe how

she plays. This sentence communicates that the person referred to as “she” has skill and talent in playing the piano.

  • “The cat is sleeping.” – This sentence features the subject “the cat,” the verb “is sleeping,” and it doesn’t include an object. It describes the current state or action of the cat.
  • “We went to the beach and swam in the ocean.” – This sentence contains two independent clauses connected by the coordinating conjunction “and.” The subject is “we,” and the verbs are “went” and “swam.” It communicates that the speaker and others visited the beach and engaged in swimming in the ocean.
  • “Please pass me the book.” – This is an imperative sentence where the subject “you” is implied. It includes the verb “pass” and the object “the book.” It is a command or request, asking someone to hand over the book.
  • “After finishing dinner, they went for a walk.” – This sentence includes a dependent clause (“After finishing dinner”) and an independent clause (“they went for a walk”). It provides information about the sequence of events, indicating that after dinner, the group went for a walk.

These examples demonstrate the different types of sentences, including declarative sentences (making statements), interrogative sentences (asking questions), imperative sentences (giving commands or making requests), and complex sentences (combining multiple clauses).

A sentence can be composed of one or more clauses. A clause is a group of words that includes a subject and a predicate (verb) and can express a complete thought.

Different types of clauses:

  1. Independent Clause: An independent clause, also known as a main clause, is a clause that can stand alone as a complete sentence. It expresses a complete thought and can function as a standalone sentence. It contains a subject and a verb and conveys a clear meaning.

Example: “Sheila loves to read.” – This independent clause has the subject “Sheila” and the verb “loves.” It forms a complete sentence that expresses Sheila’s love for reading.

  • Dependent Clause: A dependent clause, also known as a subordinate clause, cannot stand alone as a complete sentence because it does not express a complete thought. It relies on an independent clause to form a complete sentence and provide additional information.

Example: “Because he was tired” – This dependent clause does not provide a complete thought on its own. It requires an independent clause to give it meaning. For instance, “Because he was tired, he decided to go to bed early.” Here, the dependent clause adds a reason for the action described in the independent clause.

Dependent clauses can serve different functions:

  • Adverbial Clause: An adverbial clause modifies or describes a verb, adjective, or adverb in the independent clause, providing information about time, place, manner, condition, reason, or purpose. Example: “He studied hard so that he could pass the exam.” The adverbial clause “so that he could pass the exam” explains the purpose or reason for studying hard.
  • Adjectival Clause: An adjectival clause functions as an adjective, modifying a noun or pronoun in the independent clause. It provides additional information or describes the noun. Example: “The book that I borrowed from the library was excellent.” The adjectival clause  “that I borrowed from the library” describes the noun “book” and specifies which book is being referred to.
  • Noun Clause: A noun clause functions as a noun within the sentence. It can act as the subject, object, or complement. Example: “What she said surprised me.” The noun clause “what she said” functions as the direct object of the verb “surprised” and represents the thing that caused surprise. It’s important to note that dependent clauses rely on independent clauses to form complete sentences. They often begin with subordinating conjunctions like “because,” “although,” “if,” “when,” or “that.”

Question no. 3 What is a noun? Write down its types with suitable examples.

A noun is a word that represents a person, place, thing, or idea. It is one of the fundamental parts of speech in English grammar. Nouns are essential for identifying and naming objects, people, places, and concepts. Here are the different types of nouns with examples:

  1. Common Noun: A common noun refers to a general person, place, thing, or idea. It does not specifically name a particular entity.

Examples:

  • Person: doctor, teacher, student
  • Place: city, park, school
  • Thing: table, chair, book
  • Idea: happiness, freedom, love
  • Proper Noun: A proper noun is used to name a specific person, place, organization, or thing. It always begins with a capital letter.

Examples:

  • Person: Ali, Asma, Farooq
  • Place: Paris, Pakistan, Mount Everest
  • Organization: Microsoft, Google, United Nations
  • Thing: Coca-Cola, Mona Lisa, Taj Mahal
  • Concrete Noun: A concrete noun refers to something that can be perceived by the senses (sight, hearing, touch, taste, smell). It represents tangible objects or substances.
  • Abstract Noun: An abstract noun represents something that cannot be perceived by the senses. It refers to ideas, concepts, qualities, or states.

Examples: Love, courage, knowledge, happiness, freedom

  • Collective Noun: A collective noun refers to a group or collection of people, animals, or things as a single entity.

Examples: Team, family, flock, herd, audience

  • Countable Noun: A countable noun refers to something that can be counted as individual units. It can be used in both singular and plural forms.

Examples: Dog (singular), dogs (plural), Book (singular), books (plural)

  • Uncountable Noun: An uncountable noun refers to something that cannot be counted as separate units. It usually represents substances, concepts, or abstract ideas.

Examples: Water, sugar, information, love

  • Compound Noun: A compound noun is formed by combining two or more words to create a single noun with a new meaning.

Examples: Football, bedroom, rainbow, toothpaste

  • Possessive Noun: A possessive noun shows ownership or possession. It is formed by adding an apostrophe and “s” (‘s) to the noun.

Examples: Sarah’s car, the dog’s tail, the company’s logo

These are some of the main types of nouns in English. Understanding the different types of nouns can help you use them correctly in sentences and enhance your overall communication skills.

Question no. 4 Define verb with its classification in detail. / Elaborate model verbs and conditionals./ Write down the non-finite verb forms and functions in detail.

A verb is a word that expresses an action, occurrence, or state of being in a sentence. It is one of the nine parts of speech in English grammar. Verbs play a vital role in constructing sentences and conveying information about the subject’s actions or conditions. They are classified based on their functions and forms. Let’s explore the different classifications of verbs:

Action Verbs: Action verbs, also known as dynamic verbs, describe physical or mental actions performed by the subject. They can be either transitive or intransitive.

Transitive Verbs: These verbs require a direct object to complete their meaning. For example: She ate an apple.

They built a house.

Intransitive Verbs: These verbs do not require a direct object and express an action without affecting an object. For example:

He ran quickly.

The bird flew away.

Linking Verbs: Linking verbs, also called copula verbs, connect the subject of a sentence to a subject complement, which provides additional information about the subject’s state or identity. They do not indicate action but rather a state of being.

Examples of linking verbs include:

He is a doctor. She feels tired.

The flowers smell beautiful.

Auxiliary Verbs: Auxiliary verbs, also known as helping verbs, work alongside main verbs to express various verb tenses, moods, voices, and aspects. They assist in creating compound tenses, questions, negations, and other verb forms.

Examples of auxiliary verbs include:

She is writing a letter. (helping verb “is” + main verb “writing”)

They have finished their homework. (helping verb “have” + main verb “finished”) He can swim very well. (helping verb “can” + main verb “swim”)

Modal Verbs: Modal verbs express attitudes, abilities, possibilities, obligations, or permissions. They work in conjunction with the base form of the main verb and do not take the “-s” or “-ed” endings.

Examples of modal verbs include:

He should study for the exam. They can play the piano.

We must finish the project on time.

Phrasal Verbs: Phrasal verbs consist of a verb and one or more particles (prepositions or adverbs) that together form a new idiomatic meaning. The combination of the verb and particle(s) often creates a different sense than the individual words alone.

Examples of phrasal verbs include:

She put on her coat. (put on: to wear)

He turned off the lights. (turn off: to switch off)

They ran into their old friends. (run into: to encounter)

These are some of the main classifications of verbs. Understanding the different types of verbs can help in constructing meaningful sentences and effectively conveying information.

Model verbs and conditionals.

Modal verbs, also known as modal auxiliary verbs or simply modals, are a specific category of auxiliary verbs that express various attitudes, possibilities, obligations, permissions, and abilities. They work in conjunction with the base form of the main verb and do not take the “-s” or “-ed” endings. Modal verbs are used to modify the meaning of the main verb in terms of certainty, necessity, willingness, ability, and other aspects.

Most common modal verbs in English:

Can: Used to express ability, permission, or possibility. Example: I can swim. (ability)

Example: Can I borrow your pen? (permission) Example: It can rain later. (possibility)

Could: Similar to “can,” but it often implies a past ability, past permission, or a more tentative possibility.

Example: She could speak French fluently when she was younger. (past ability) Example: Could I use your phone? (polite request)

Example: It could rain later. (possibility)

May: Used to express possibility, permission, or a wish. Example: It may rain tomorrow. (possibility)

Example: May I go to the restroom? (permission) Example: May all your dreams come true. (wish)

Might: Similar to “may,” but it usually suggests a lower probability or a more uncertain situation.

Example: We might go to the beach if the weather improves. (lower probability) Example: She might be late for the meeting. (uncertainty)

Must: Indicates necessity, obligation, or a strong belief.

Example: You must complete the assignment by tomorrow. (necessity/obligation) Example: It must be his car parked outside. (strong belief)

Shall: Primarily used in formal or legal contexts to express future actions or obligations. It is also used to make suggestions or offers in some cases.

Example: We shall arrive at 8:00 AM. (future action) Example: Shall I open the window? (suggestion) Example: Shall we dance? (offer)

Should: Expresses advice, recommendations, or expectations. Example: You should eat more vegetables for a balanced diet. (advice) Example: They should be here by now. (expectation)

Will: Used to indicate future actions, predictions, willingness, or determination. Example: I will meet you at the park tomorrow. (future action)

Example: It will rain heavily tonight. (prediction) Example: She will help you with the project. (willingness)

Example: I will do whatever it takes to succeed. (determination)

Would: Often used to express polite requests, preferences, hypothetical situations, or conditional statements.

Example: Would you mind closing the window? (polite request) Example: I would like to have a cup of tea, please. (preference)

Example: If I had more time, I would travel the world. (hypothetical situation) Example: If it rained, we would stay indoors. (conditional statement)

Conditionals are sentence structures that express hypothetical situations and their corresponding consequences or outcomes. Conditionals often involve the use of auxiliary verbs and other verb forms to convey different degrees of probability or hypothetical conditions. In conditional sentences, the verb forms used depend on the specific type of conditional being expressed. Here are the main types of conditionals and their associated verb forms:

Zero Conditional: The zero conditional expresses general truths or situations that are always true or universally applicable. It follows the pattern: “If + present simple, present simple.” In this type of conditional, the verb forms used are in the present simple tense.

Example: If you heat ice, it melts.

First Conditional: The first conditional expresses real or likely future situations. It follows the pattern: “If + present simple, will + base form of the verb.” In this type of conditional, the “if” clause uses the present simple tense, and the main clause uses the future tense with “will.”

Example: If it rains, we will stay indoors.

Second Conditional: The second conditional expresses hypothetical or unreal situations in the present or future. It follows the pattern: “If + past simple, would + base form of the verb.” In this type of conditional, the “if” clause uses the past simple tense, and the main clause uses “would” to indicate a hypothetical outcome.

Example: If I won the lottery, I would travel the world.

Third Conditional: The third conditional expresses hypothetical or unreal situations in the past. It follows the pattern: “If + past perfect, would have + past participle.” In this type of

conditional, the “if” clause uses the past perfect tense, and the main clause uses “would have” to indicate a hypothetical outcome in the past.

Example: If she had studied harder, she would have passed the exam.

It’s important to note that these patterns and verb forms can be modified and adjusted based on the specific context and intended meaning. Additionally, other modal verbs like “could,” “should,” or “might” can be used to express different degrees of possibility or hypothetical conditions within the conditional sentence.

Non-finite verb forms and functions in detail.

Non-finite verb forms are verb forms that do not function as the main verb in a sentence and are not conjugated for tense, number, or person. They do not indicate specific actions or states but rather serve different functions within a sentence. Here are the main non-finite verb forms and their functions:

1.  Infinitive: The infinitive is the base form of a verb, typically preceded by the word “to”   (the to-infinitive). However, it can also appear without “to” (the bare infinitive) after certain verbs such as modal verbs and causative verbs. The infinitive has several functions:

As a noun:

Example: To swim is her favorite activity. (subject) Example: I want to eat pizza. (direct object)

As an adjective:

Example: She has a book to read. (describes the purpose or intention) As an adverb:

Example: He went to sleep. (describes the purpose or result)

Gerund: The gerund is formed by adding “-ing” to the base form of the verb. It functions as a noun and can have various roles within a sentence:

As a subject:

Example: Swimming is good exercise.

As a direct object:

Example: I enjoy reading.

As an object of a preposition:

Example: She is interested in dancing. As a complement:

Example: His favorite activity is painting.

Participle: Participles are verb forms that can function as adjectives or used in verb phrases. There are two types of participles:

Present Participle:

Formed by adding “-ing” to the base form of the verb. Example: The running water sounded soothing. (adjective) Example: They were swimming in the pool. (verb phrase) Past Participle:

Regular past participles usually end in “-ed” or “-d,” but irregular verbs have unique forms. Example: The broken vase lay on the floor. (adjective)

Example: She has eaten breakfast. (verb phrase)

The functions of participles as adjectives include describing the characteristics or qualities of nouns. When used in verb phrases, they form different tenses or aspects of the verb.

Infinitive Phrase: An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive verb form along with any accompanying modifiers or complements. It functions as a noun, adjective, or adverb within a sentence. The entire phrase acts as a single unit, often carrying out specific functions:

As a noun:

Example: His goal is to win the championship. As an adjective:

Example: I have a book to read. As an adverb:

Example: She works hard to succeed.

Understanding and utilizing non-finite verb forms are crucial for constructing sentences with different structures and conveying information accurately. These forms allow for flexibility and add variety to sentence construction.

Question no. 5 Explain adjective, adverb and interjection with examples.

Adjective with example An adjective is a word that describes or modifies a noun or pronoun. It provides additional information about the quality, size, shape, color, origin, or other characteristics of the noun or pronoun it is associated with.

Here are some examples of adjectives and how they modify nouns:

  1. The blue sky: In this example, the adjective “blue” describes the quality or color of the noun “sky.”
  2. She has a beautiful voice: Here, the adjective “beautiful” describes the quality of the noun “voice,” indicating that it is pleasant or aesthetically pleasing.
  3. The large elephant: The adjective “large” provides information about the size of the noun “elephant,” suggesting that it is big or sizable.
  4. I bought a delicious pizza: In this sentence, the adjective “delicious” describes the quality of the noun “pizza,” indicating that it tastes good or is enjoyable to eat.
  5. He lives in a modern house: The adjective “modern” provides information about the characteristic or style of the noun “house,” suggesting that it is contemporary or up-to-date.
  6. They adopted a rescue dog: Here, the adjective “rescue” describes the origin or circumstance surrounding the noun “dog,” indicating that it was adopted from a rescue organization.
  7. The round table: In this example, the adjective “round” describes the shape of the noun “table,” suggesting that it has no corners and is circular in form.

These examples demonstrate how adjectives enhance our understanding of nouns by providing descriptive information. Adjectives play a crucial role in painting a vivid picture and adding specificity to our language.

Adverb with example An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. It provides additional information about the manner, place, time, frequency, degree, or reason of an action or state.

Here are some examples of adverbs and how they modify different parts of speech:

  1. She speaks fluently in multiple languages: In this example, the adverb “fluently” modifies the verb “speaks” by providing information about the manner in which she speaks.
  2. The car moved quickly through the streets: Here, the adverb “quickly” modifies the verb “moved” by describing the manner in which the car moved.
  3. He is very tall: In this sentence, the adverb “very” modifies the adjective “tall” by intensifying the degree or level of his height.
  4. They arrived late to the meeting: Here, the adverb “late” modifies the verb “arrived” by indicating the time at which they arrived.
  5. She answered the question correctly: In this example, the adverb “correctly” modifies the verb “answered” by describing the manner in which she answered the question.
  6. He sings beautifully: Here, the adverb “beautifully” modifies the verb “sings” by providing information about the manner in which he sings.
  7. They traveled abroad: In this sentence, the adverb “abroad” modifies the verb “traveled” by indicating the place or location where they traveled.
  8. She runs often: Here, the adverb “often” modifies the verb “runs” by indicating the frequency or how frequently she runs.

These examples demonstrate how adverbs add detail to verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs by providing information about various aspects such as manner, place, time, frequency, degree, or reason. Adverbs help to provide a more complete and nuanced description of actions and states in a sentence.

Interjection with example An interjection is a word or phrase that expresses a strong emotion, sudden reaction, or feeling. Interjections are used to convey a range of emotions, such as

surprise, joy, pain, frustration, excitement, or relief. They often stand alone or are followed by an exclamation mark to emphasize the intensity of the emotion being expressed.

Here are some examples of interjections:

  1. Wow! That was an amazing performance!
  2. In this example, “Wow!” expresses a sense of astonishment or amazement.
  3. Ouch! That hurt!
  4. In this case, “Ouch!” is used to convey pain or discomfort.
  5. Hurray! We won the game!
  6. “Hurray!” expresses joy, excitement, or triumph.
  7. Oh no! I forgot my keys again!
  8. “Oh no!” conveys a feeling of disappointment or frustration.
  9. Alas! We missed the train.
  10. “Alas!” expresses a sense of sorrow, regret, or disappointment.
  11. Phew! That was a close call.
  12. “Phew!” indicates a feeling of relief or release of tension.
  13. Bravo! You did an excellent job.
  14. “Bravo!” is used to show admiration or approval.

Interjections are used to express emotions or reactions in a concise and immediate manner.  They add emphasis and reflect the speaker’s spontaneous response to a situation. It’s important to note that interjections don’t have a grammatical connection with the rest of the sentence but serve as exclamatory expressions to convey a specific emotion or reaction.

Question No.6 Define columns and commentary. Also discuss their characteristics in detail.

Columns in a newspaper refer to a specific section of the publication that features regular opinion or commentary pieces written by a particular author, known as a columnist. These columns are usually published on a consistent basis, such as daily, weekly, or monthly, and are

distinguished from news articles or features that primarily focus on reporting facts. Columns serve as a platform for expressing personal viewpoints, offering analysis, and initiating discussions on various subjects of interest. Here are some key characteristics of newspaper columns:

  1. Opinion and Commentary: Columns are primarily opinion-based, offering the columnist’s perspective on a specific topic or issue. Unlike news articles that aim to present objective information, columns provide subjective analysis, criticism, or personal viewpoints. They reflect the columnist’s expertise, experiences, and individual voice.
  2. Author Identity: Columns are closely associated with their respective authors, who often have a recognizable style and unique perspective. The author’s name is prominently displayed alongside the column’s title, contributing to the columnist’s reputation and credibility. Readers may develop a loyal following for specific columnists whose views resonate with them.
  3. Regular Publication Schedule: Columns typically have a predictable publication schedule, allowing readers to anticipate their appearance in the newspaper. They may be published daily, weekly (e.g., every Sunday), biweekly, or monthly, depending on the publication’s frequency and the columnist’s availability.
  4. Varied Topics: Columns cover a wide range of topics, including politics, current events, sports, lifestyle, entertainment, finance, and more. Each columnist often specializes in a particular subject area or possesses expertise in a specific field, allowing them to delve deep into the subject matter.
  5. Editorial Independence: While columnists may have affiliations or leanings toward a particular ideology or political stance, they generally enjoy more freedom in expressing their views compared to news reporters. This editorial independence allows columnists to share their thoughts openly and construct arguments based on their personal analysis and research.
  6. Engaging Writing Style: Columns employ a writing style that aims to captivate readers’ attention and provoke thought. Columnists often utilize rhetorical devices, storytelling techniques, wit, humor, or persuasive language to engage their audience. The goal is to foster reader interest and generate discussion or debate.
  • Influence and Debate: Columns can have a significant impact on public opinion and discourse. They serve as catalysts for discussions, encouraging readers to critically engage with the topic at hand and form their own opinions. Thought-provoking columns can spark debates, shape conversations, and influence public perception on various issues.Interactive Nature: With the advent of online newspapers and social media, columns have become more interactive. Readers can share their thoughts, comments, and feedback on columns, facilitating dialogue between the columnist and the readership. This interaction enhances reader engagement and allows for a broader range of perspectives to be considered.

Overall, columns play a crucial role in newspapers by offering readers diverse viewpoints, stimulating discussion, and providing a platform for writers to express their opinions and analysis. They contribute to the dynamic nature of journalism, encouraging critical thinking and engaging the public on a wide range of topics.

Commentary refers to a form of expression or analysis that provides insights, opinions, or explanations on a particular subject or event. It can be found in various forms of media, including newspapers, magazines, television, radio, and online platforms. Commentary pieces aim to offer a deeper understanding of a topic by presenting a specific viewpoint or interpretation. Here are some key characteristics of commentary:

  1. Subjectivity: Commentary is inherently subjective, as it reflects the viewpoint, analysis, or interpretation of the commentator. Unlike news articles that aim to present objective facts, commentary pieces express personal opinions and perspectives. Commentators may draw on their expertise, experience, or research to provide insights on the subject matter.
  2. Analysis and Interpretation: Commentary pieces focus on analyzing and interpreting events, issues, or trends. They aim to provide context, examine causes and effects, identify patterns, and offer a deeper understanding of the topic at hand. Commentators often draw connections between different elements to present a coherent narrative or argument.
  3. Opinionated: Commentaries are opinion-based and rely on the commentator’s personal judgment or evaluation. The commentator may express support, criticism, or a combination of

both regarding the subject matter. These opinions can be backed by reasoning, evidence, or examples to strengthen the commentator’s argument.

  • Expertise and Credibility: Commentary pieces are often written by individuals with expertise or experience in the relevant field. Commentators may include academics, professionals, journalists, or industry insiders who possess specialized knowledge and insights. Their credibility and reputation contribute to the value of their commentary.
  • Engagement and Provocation: Commentary pieces aim to engage the readers or viewers by presenting thought-provoking ideas, arguments, or analysis. They may challenge conventional wisdom, question prevailing narratives, or introduce alternative viewpoints. By doing so, commentaries stimulate critical thinking, encourage readers to consider different perspectives, and foster discussions.
  • Persuasive Language and Rhetoric: Commentators employ various rhetorical techniques and persuasive language to present their arguments effectively. They may use logical reasoning, emotional appeals, storytelling, or anecdotal evidence to engage the audience and convince them of their perspective. Skillful use of rhetoric enhances the impact of the commentary.
  • Timeliness: Commentaries often respond to current events or ongoing debates, making them time-sensitive. Commentators aim to provide immediate analysis or insights to contribute to the ongoing conversation surrounding a specific issue. This timeliness allows commentaries to have a direct impact on public opinion and discourse.
  • Platform Diversity: Commentaries can be found across different media platforms, including newspapers, magazines, television, radio, blogs, and social media. The accessibility and reach of various platforms enable a wide audience to engage with commentaries and share their thoughts or responses.
  • Diversity of Topics: Commentaries cover a broad range of topics, including politics, economics, social issues, culture, sports, and more. They provide in-depth analysis and alternative viewpoints on subjects of public interest. This diversity allows for a richer understanding of complex issues from multiple perspectives.
  • Influence and Impact: Well-crafted commentaries can have a significant influence on public opinion, policy debates, and the overall narrative surrounding a specific topic. They can

shape public discourse, challenge existing norms or beliefs, and inspire further discussions or actions.

In summary, commentary pieces offer subjective analysis, interpretation, and opinion on various subjects. They provide readers or viewers with a deeper understanding of complex issues, stimulate critical thinking, and contribute to public discourse. Commentaries play a crucial role in journalism and media, providing alternative viewpoints and fostering a diversity of opinions.

Question no. 7 Discuss different mechanics of the grammar.

Grammar encompasses various mechanics that govern the structure, organization, and usage of language. Let’s explore some key mechanics of grammar and illustrate them with examples:

  1. Parts of Speech: Parts of speech categorize words based on their syntactic and semantic roles in a sentence. The main parts of speech include nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections.

Example: “John (noun) runs (verb) quickly (adverb) to (preposition) the (article) store (noun).”

  • Sentence Structure: Sentence structure refers to the arrangement of words and phrases to form grammatically correct sentences. It involves elements such as subjects, predicates, objects, and modifiers.

Example: “The (article) cat (subject) chased (predicate) the (article) mouse (object).”

  • Verb Tenses: Verb tenses indicate the time of an action or state. They include present, past, and future tenses, as well as their various forms such as simple, continuous, perfect, and perfect continuous.

Example: “She (subject) is studying (present continuous tense) for her exam.”

  • Agreement: Agreement ensures that different parts of a sentence match in terms of number (singular or plural) and person (first, second, or third).

Example: “The dog (singular subject) barks (singular verb).” “The dogs (plural subject) bark (plural verb).”

  • Pronouns: Pronouns are used to replace nouns to avoid repetition. They agree with the noun they replace in terms of number, gender, and case.

Example: “John (noun) is a teacher. He (pronoun) loves his (pronoun) job.”

  • Sentence Types: Sentence types include declarative (statements), interrogative (questions), imperative (commands), and exclamatory (expressing strong emotions).

Example: “I (subject) love (verb) ice cream (object).” (Declarative) “Do (verb) you (subject) like (verb) ice cream (object)?” (Interrogative)

  • Punctuation: Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, question marks, and exclamation marks help clarify the meaning and structure of sentences.

Example: “I am going to the party. Are you coming?”

  • Clauses and Phrases: Clauses are groups of words containing a subject and a verb, while phrases are smaller units of words that lack a subject-verb combination.

Example: “She (subject) will visit (verb) her friend after she finishes (clause) her work.”

These are just a few mechanics of grammar, and there are many more rules and principles that shape the structure and usage of language. Understanding and applying these mechanics correctly enhance clarity, precision, and coherence in communication.

Question No. 8 Write a detailed note on use of punctuation.

Punctuation marks are essential tools in written language that help convey meaning, clarify sentence structure, and guide the reader’s interpretation. Here’s a detailed exploration of the use of punctuation with examples:

  1. Period (.)
  2. The period is used to indicate the end of a declarative sentence or an abbreviation. Example: “I enjoy reading novels.” “Dr. Smith is a renowned scientist.”
  3. Question Mark (?)
  4. The question mark is used to indicate the end of an interrogative sentence, that is, a question. Example: “Where are you going?” “Did you finish your homework?”
  • Exclamation Mark (!)
  • The exclamation mark is used to indicate strong emotions, surprise, or emphasis. Example: “What a beautiful sunset!” “Stop! Look out!”
  • Comma (,)
  • The comma is a versatile punctuation mark with multiple uses, including: a. Separating items in a list. Example: “I bought apples, bananas, and oranges.” b. Separating independent clauses in a compound sentence. Example: “I like to swim, and my sister prefers to hike.” c. Setting off introductory words, phrases, or clauses. Example: “However, I decided to go anyway.” d. Separating coordinate adjectives. Example: “She had long, curly hair.” e. Indicating a pause or a change in thought. Example: “I want to go to the movies, but I’m not sure if I have enough time.”
  • Semicolon (;)
  • The semicolon is used to connect two closely related independent clauses without a coordinating conjunction. Example: “She loves to read; her favorite genre is fantasy.”
  • Colon (:)
  • The colon is used to introduce a list, explanation, or example. Example: “Please bring the following items: a pen, notebook, and calculator.” “The reason is simple: I was tired.”
  • Dash (—)
  • The dash is used to indicate a sudden change in thought or to emphasize a phrase. Example: “She loved her job—until the company went bankrupt.” “I can’t believe it—she won the competition!”
  • Quotation Marks (” “)
  • Quotation marks are used to enclose direct speech or a quote. Example: She said, “I’ll be there at 8 o’clock.” “To be or not to be, that is the question.”
  • Parentheses ( )
  • Parentheses are used to enclose additional information or clarifications. Example: “The event (which lasted for three hours) was a great success.” “I met John (my old friend) at the party.”
  • Ellipsis (…)
  • The ellipsis is used to indicate the omission of words, a pause, or trailing off. Example: “She said, ‘I’ll be there in a minute…'”
  • Apostrophe (‘)
  • The apostrophe is used to indicate possession or contraction. Example: “Sarah’s book (possession).” “It’s (it is) a beautiful day.”

Correct use of punctuation enhances readability, clarifies meaning, and contributes to effective communication. Understanding these punctuation marks and their applications allows writers to convey their ideas more accurately and engage readers more effectively.

Question no. 9 Write down major types of features with examples.

In the context of language and linguistic analysis, features refer to distinctive characteristics or attributes that help classify or categorize linguistic elements. Here are some major types of features with examples:

  1. Phonological Features: Phonological features describe the sound properties of speech sounds. They include features such as voicing, place of articulation, and manner of articulation. Example: The word “cat” has the phonological feature [voice], as the /k/ sound at the beginning is voiceless.
  2. Morphological Features: Morphological features pertain to the structure and formation of words. They indicate properties such as tense, number, gender, and case. Example: In English, the morphological feature [plural] is marked by adding “-s” to nouns (e.g., cat → cats).
  3. Syntactic Features: Syntactic features involve the arrangement and relationships of words in a sentence. They include features like subject, object, tense, and agreement. Example: In the sentence “She is eating an apple,” the syntactic feature [subject] is marked by the pronoun “she.”
  4. Semantic Features: Semantic features capture the meaning or conceptual properties associated with words. They describe attributes such as animacy, color, size, and location. Example: The semantic feature [animate] is present in the word “dog,” indicating that it refers to a living being.
  5. Pragmatic Features: Pragmatic features pertain to language use in context and convey information about the speaker’s intentions, politeness, or emphasis. Example: The pragmatic feature [polite] can be observed in phrases like “Could you please pass the salt?”
  • Discourse Features: Discourse features involve the organization and coherence of spoken or written text. They include features like topic, focus, cohesion, and coherence. Example: In a conversation, the discourse feature [topic] refers to the main subject or theme being discussed.
  • Lexical Features: Lexical features describe the characteristics of individual words, such as their part of speech, frequency, connotation, or register. Example: The lexical feature [adjective] describes words like “happy,” “red,” or “tall” that modify nouns.
  • Pragmatic Features: Pragmatic features involve the use of language in social and cultural contexts, including politeness, indirectness, or formality. Example: The pragmatic feature [formal] is reflected in phrases like “Dear Sir/Madam” in a formal letter.

These are just a few examples of the major types of features used in linguistic analysis. Features play a crucial role in understanding the structure, meaning, and usage of language and enable the classification and analysis of linguistic elements at various levels.

Question no. 10 What is text discourse? Explain in the light o different text types.

Text discourse refers to the organization, structure, and coherence of written or spoken texts. It involves the way information is presented, how ideas are connected, and how the overall flow of the text is established. Different text types exhibit distinct discourse characteristics. Let’s explore three common text types and their discourse features:

  1. Narrative Discourse: Narrative discourse tells a story or recounts events in a sequential manner. It typically includes elements such as characters, setting, plot, and resolution. The discourse features of narrative texts include:
  2. Chronological organization: Events are presented in a time-ordered sequence.
  3. Descriptive language: Detailed descriptions of characters, settings, and actions are provided.
  4. Dialogues: Direct speech or conversations between characters are included.
  5. Coherence: The story has a logical progression and a clear beginning, middle, and end.

Example: A short story with a clear introduction, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution.

  • Expository Discourse: Expository discourse aims to inform or explain a topic or concept. It presents factual information, provides definitions, describes processes, or presents arguments. The discourse features of expository texts include:
  • Introduction: The topic is introduced and the main idea is stated.
  • Logical organization: Information is presented in a structured and coherent manner, using headings, subheadings, or bullet points.
  • Examples and evidence: Supportive examples, evidence, or data are provided to reinforce the main points.
  • Transitions: Words and phrases are used to signal connections between ideas and paragraphs. Example: An article explaining the causes and effects of climate change, presenting scientific evidence, and proposing solutions.
  • Argumentative Discourse: Argumentative discourse presents a claim or position on a controversial topic and supports it with reasoning and evidence. The discourse features of argumentative texts include:
  • Thesis statement: The writer’s main claim or position is clearly stated.
  • Counterarguments: Opposing viewpoints or counterarguments are acknowledged and refuted.
  • Evidence and reasoning: Supporting evidence, facts, statistics, or logical reasoning are used to support the claim.
  • Persuasive language: Rhetorical devices and persuasive techniques are employed to convince the reader.

Example: An opinion piece arguing for stricter gun control laws, presenting statistics on gun violence and discussing the impact of such measures.

These are just a few examples of text types and their associated discourse features. Each text type has its unique characteristics and structures, all aimed at effectively conveying information, telling a story, or persuading the reader. Understanding the discourse features specific to different text types helps readers comprehend and engage with texts more effectively.

Question no. 11 Explain the various forms of journalistic writing with examples:.

Journalistic writing encompasses various forms and styles, each tailored to specific purposes and audiences. Here are some common forms of journalistic writing with examples:

  1. News Articles: News articles present current events, facts, and information in a concise and objective manner. They follow the inverted pyramid structure, where the most important information is presented first, followed by supporting details. Examples include:
  2. Headline: “Earthquake Hits City, Causing Extensive Damage”
  3. Lead (Opening sentence): “A 6.5 magnitude earthquake struck the city yesterday, resulting in widespread destruction and multiple casualties.”
  4. Body: Provides additional details, quotes from witnesses or officials, and contextual information.
  5. Feature Articles: Feature articles are in-depth, human-interest stories that go beyond the immediate news. They explore topics, people, or issues with more depth and often include interviews, personal anecdotes, and analysis. Examples include:
  6. Title: “Behind the Scenes: A Day in the Life of a Firefighter”
  7. Lead: Sets the tone and introduces the central theme of the article.
  8. Body: Provides background information, personal experiences, and quotes to engage readers and offer different perspectives.
  9. Opinion Columns: Opinion columns express the personal viewpoints or analyses of the author. They provide commentary, analysis, and interpretation of current events or issues. Examples include:
  10. Title: “Why We Need to Rethink Education Policies”
  11. Introduction: Presents the author’s argument or opinion.
  12. Body: Presents evidence, logical reasoning, and examples to support the opinion.
  13. Conclusion: Summarizes the main points and reiterates the author’s opinion.
  14. Editorials: Editorials represent the collective opinion of the newspaper or media outlet’s editorial board. They offer the official stance on significant issues, often influencing public opinion or policy debates. Examples include:
  • Title: “The Urgent Need for Healthcare Reform”
  • Introduction: States the issue and the newspaper’s stance.
  • Body: Provides arguments, evidence, and recommendations to support the opinion.
  • Conclusion: Summarizes the key points and offers a call to action or proposed solution.
  • Investigative Reports: Investigative reports involve in-depth research, uncovering hidden information, and exposing wrongdoing or significant issues. They often require extensive research, interviews, and analysis. Examples include:
  • Title: “Corruption Scandal: Uncovering Fraud in Government Contracts”
  • Introduction: Presents the issue or event being investigated.
  • Body: Provides evidence, interviews, and analysis to reveal the extent of the problem and its implications.
  • Conclusion: Summarizes the findings and potential consequences, and often calls for accountability or action.

These are just a few examples of the various forms of journalistic writing. Each form serves a specific purpose, whether it is to inform, entertain, or persuade readers, and employs distinct techniques and structures to achieve its objectives.

Question no. 12 Describe different steps of precis writing. Also make precis of any paragraph as an example.

Precis writing is a process of condensing a given passage into a shorter, more concise version while retaining its main ideas and key details. The following are the general steps involved in writing a precis:

  1. Reading and Understanding: Read the original passage carefully to comprehend the main ideas, arguments, and supporting details. Pay attention to the author’s tone and style.
  2. Identify the Central Theme: Determine the central theme or main idea of the passage. This theme should capture the essence of the entire text.
  • Analyze the Structure: Examine the structure of the passage, identifying the introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion. Note the logical progression and flow of ideas.
  • Highlight Key Points: Identify the most important points, arguments, and supporting details. Focus on capturing the main ideas while omitting unnecessary examples, illustrations, or repetitions.
  • Create a Thesis Statement: Construct a clear and concise thesis statement that reflects the central theme of the passage. This will guide the rest of your precis.
  • Rewrite in Your Own Words: Rewrite the passage, paragraph by paragraph, in your own words. Maintain the author’s intended meaning while using concise language and sentence structure.
  • Edit for Clarity and Conciseness: Review your precis to ensure that it is clear, concise, and coherent. Eliminate any unnecessary or redundant words, phrases, or details.
  • Revise and Proofread: Check for any grammatical errors, spelling mistakes, or punctuation errors. Make necessary revisions to improve the overall quality of your precis.

Original Paragraph: “Inflation continues to plague the Pakistani economy, with prices of essential goods and services skyrocketing. The cost of food items, including staples like wheat, rice, and vegetables, has seen a significant increase, making it increasingly difficult for the average citizen to afford basic necessities. The rising prices have also resulted in a decline in purchasing power, as salaries and wages fail to keep up with the soaring inflation rate. This has led to a growing sense of economic insecurity and social unrest among the population. Efforts by the government to curb inflation through monetary and fiscal measures have yielded limited success, further exacerbating the situation. Immediate and effective steps need to be taken to address this persistent issue and alleviate the burden on the people.”

Precis: Inflation in Pakistan persists, causing a surge in prices of essential goods and services. The cost of food items, including wheat, rice, and vegetables, has significantly risen, making it challenging for average citizens to afford necessities. Purchasing power has declined due to stagnant salaries, leading to economic insecurity and social unrest. Government measures to control inflation have had limited success. Urgent actions are required to alleviate this burden on the population.

Question no.13 Explain convention a purpose of written communication.

In the context of written communication, conventions refer to the established norms, rules, and expectations that govern the way written messages are structured and presented. These conventions serve multiple purposes and play a crucial role in effective written communication. Here are two primary purposes of conventions in written communication:

  1. Enhancing Clarity and Understanding: Conventions provide a standardized framework for organizing written content, which helps ensure clarity and comprehension for the readers. By following established conventions, writers can structure their messages in a way that is familiar to the audience, making it easier for them to navigate and understand the information. For example:
  2. Using paragraphs and headings: Breaking the text into paragraphs and using headings and subheadings helps readers identify distinct sections and locate specific information quickly.
  3. Employing punctuation and grammar: Correct usage of punctuation marks and grammar rules aids in conveying the intended meaning accurately, preventing ambiguity or misinterpretation.
  4. Adhering to spelling and capitalization rules: Proper spelling and capitalization contribute to the readability and professionalism of the written message.
  5. Facilitating Effective Communication: Conventions enable effective communication by establishing shared expectations between the writer and the reader. They serve as a common language and set of guidelines that ensure consistency and coherence in written communication. Adhering to conventions helps writers convey their ideas accurately, and it allows readers to comprehend the message efficiently. For example:
  6. Following formatting and citation styles: Consistent use of formatting styles, such as APA or MLA, in academic writing facilitates the organization and referencing of sources, allowing readers to verify information or delve deeper into the topic.
  7. Using appropriate tone and style: Adapting the tone and style of writing based on the purpose and intended audience ensures the message is received in the intended manner, whether it is formal, informal, persuasive, or informative.
  • Observing genre-specific conventions: Different genres, such as news articles, business reports, or personal letters, have specific conventions and structures. Following these conventions helps readers recognize the genre and understand the content within its expected framework.
  • Overall, conventions in written communication serve the purpose of promoting clarity, coherence, and effective communication between the writer and the reader. By adhering to established norms and guidelines, writers can convey their messages more effectively and ensure that the intended meaning is accurately understood by the audience.

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