** Mass Communication Semester-III**

**Important Questions with Answers prepared by Faiza Gul, FR ILMI TEAM (Errors and omissions acceptable) Disclaimer: All Questions and Answers are Based on self assessment and It is only Guess material. To join whatsap group contact at 03068314733**

**Q.1 Differentiate between parametric and Non-parametric Statistics with examples.**

Parametric and non-parametric statistics are two broad categories used in statistical analysis. The main difference between them lies in the assumptions they make about the underlying population distribution.

**Parametric Statistics**: Parametric statistics assume that the data follow a specific probability distribution or model, usually the normal distribution. When working with parametric statistics, specific parameters, such as means and variances, are estimated from the sample data to make inferences about the population.

**Examples of parametric statistics include:**

**Student’s t-test:**Used to compare means between two groups.- Analysis of variance (ANOVA): Used to compare means between more than two groups.
**Linear regression:**Used to model the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables.**Normal distribution-based hypothesis tests: Examples**include the z-test and chi-square test.

**Non-parametric Statistics:** Non-parametric statistics, on the other hand, do not assume a specific probability distribution. They are often used when the data does not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests or when the true population distribution is unknown. Non-parametric methods rely on fewer assumptions and are generally more robust to deviations from normality.

**Examples of non-parametric statistics include:**

**Mann-Whitney U test:**Used to compare medians between two groups.**Kruskal-Wallis test:**Used to compare medians between more than two groups.**Wilcoxon signed-rank test**: Used to compare paired samples.- Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient: Measures the strength and direction of a monotonic relationship between two variables.

Non-parametric statistics are often preferred when dealing with ordinal or categorical data or when the data distribution is skewed or has outliers. They provide valid results without requiring strict assumptions about the population distribution. It’s important to note that the choice between parametric and non-parametric methods depends on the nature of the data and the research question at hand.

In research, the choice between parametric and non-parametric statistics depends on several factors, including the type of data, the research question, and the assumptions of the statistical tests. Here’s a more detailed explanation of how each type of statistics can be used in research:

**Parametric Statistics:**Parametric statistics are widely used when the data follows a specific probability distribution, typically the normal distribution. They rely on assumptions about the population distribution and the parameters of interest. Here’s how they can be used in research:**Hypothesis testing:**Parametric tests such as t-tests and ANOVA are commonly used for hypothesis testing. For example, if you want to compare the mean scores of two groups, you can use a t-test to assess whether the difference is statistically significant.**Regression analysis**: Parametric regression models like linear regression are used to analyze the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. This is useful when examining the impact of various factors on an outcome of interest.**Estimation of parameters:**Parametric statistics allow for estimating population parameters based on sample data. For instance, you can estimate the population mean by calculating the sample mean and using it as an approximation.

Parametric statistics assume certain conditions are met, such as normality and homogeneity of variances. Violations of these assumptions can lead to unreliable results. Therefore, it’s crucial to assess the data’s distribution and meet the assumptions before applying parametric tests.

**Non-parametric Statistics:** Non-parametric statistics are used when data do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests or when the underlying population distribution is unknown. They offer flexibility and robustness against violations of distributional assumptions. Here’s how non-parametric statistics can be used in research:

**Testing for differences:**Non-parametric tests, like the Mann-Whitney U test or the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, can be used to assess differences between groups or paired samples when the data is ordinal or does not follow a normal distribution.**Correlation analysis:**When examining the relationship between variables, non-parametric measures like Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient can be employed. This coefficient assesses the monotonic relationship between variables, which may not be adequately captured by linear correlation measures.**Survival analysis:**Non-parametric methods such as the Kaplan-Meier estimator and the log-rank test are used in survival analysis to analyze time-to-event data, where the underlying distribution may not follow a specific parametric form.

Non-parametric statistics offer advantages in scenarios where assumptions of parametric tests are violated, or when the data is inherently non-normal or categorical. They are also valuable when dealing with small sample sizes or when outliers are present. When choosing between parametric and non-parametric methods, researchers should consider the nature of their data, the research question, and the assumptions of the statistical tests. It’s advisable to consult with a statistician or research methodologist to determine the most appropriate approach for a specific study.

**Q.2 How do we measure the Central Tendency of data? Discuss different techniques to measure it with adequate examples.**

The central tendency of a dataset refers to a single value that represents the “center” or typical value of the data. It helps to summarize and understand the distribution of data. There are several techniques to measure central tendency, including the mean, median, and mode. Let’s discuss each of these techniques with examples:

**Mean:**The mean is calculated by summing up all the values in the dataset and dividing it by the total number of observations. It is commonly used when the data follows a symmetric distribution.

Example: Consider the following dataset representing the heights (in centimeters) of a group of people: [160, 165, 170, 175, 180]. The mean height can be calculated as follows: (160 + 165 + 170 + 175 + 180) / 5 = 170

The mean height of this group is 170 centimeters.

**Median**: The median is the middle value in a sorted dataset. It is less influenced by extreme values and is often used when dealing with skewed distributions or outliers.

Example: Let’s consider the following dataset representing the ages of a group of people: [25, 30, 35, 40, 70]. To find the median age, we first sort the data: [25, 30, 35, 40, 70]. The middle value is 35, which is the median age of this group.

**Mode**: The mode is the value that occurs most frequently in a dataset. It is useful when dealing with categorical or discrete data, and it can have multiple modes or no mode at all.

Example: Suppose we have a dataset representing the favorite colors of a group of people: [“red”, “blue”, “green”, “blue”, “yellow”, “green”]. In this case, the mode is “blue” and “green” because both colors occur twice, while the other colors occur only once.

These central tendency measures provide different perspectives on the typical value of the data. The choice of which measure to use depends on the characteristics of the data, the research question, and the specific context in which the analysis is conducted. It is also possible to use multiple measures of central tendency to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the data.These techniques provide different ways to measure central tendency depending on the characteristics of the data. It’s important to consider the nature of the data and the research question at hand when deciding which measure to use. In some cases, a combination of measures may be necessary to fully understand the central tendency of the data.

**Q.3 What is a Research Hypothesis? Explain the purpose and criteria of developing it. **

A research hypothesis is a statement or proposition that predicts or explains the relationship between variables in a research study. It is a testable and specific statement that guides the research and serves as the basis for data collection and analysis. The purpose of developing a research hypothesis is to provide a clear direction for the study and to make empirical predictions about the expected outcomes.

**The criteria for developing a research hypothesis include:**

**Testability:**A research hypothesis should be formulated in a way that it can be tested using empirical data. It should be possible to collect relevant data and analyze it to determine whether the hypothesis is supported or not.**Specificity:**A research hypothesis should be precise and clearly state the expected relationship or difference between variables. It should provide clear guidance on what is being investigated and what the expected outcomes are.**Relevance:**A research hypothesis should be relevant to the research question or problem being addressed. It should align with the existing literature, theories, or observations related to the topic of study.**Falsifiability:**A research hypothesis should be capable of being proven false. It should be formulated in a way that allows for the possibility of rejecting the hypothesis if the empirical evidence does not support it. Falsifiability is an essential aspect of scientific inquiry and allows for the advancement of knowledge.**Consistency:**A research hypothesis should be consistent with existing knowledge and theories in the field. It should not contradict established principles unless there is a justifiable reason to propose an alternative explanation.

Developing a research hypothesis is crucial as it helps guide the research process, provides a clear focus for data collection and analysis, and allows for empirical testing of the relationship between variables. By formulating a hypothesis, researchers make explicit predictions that can be validated or refuted through systematic investigation, contributing to the advancement of scientific knowledge in their respective fields.

**Research Question:** Does exercise have a positive impact on mood?

**Research Hypothesis:** Regular exercise is associated with improved mood compared to a sedentary lifestyle.

In this example, the research hypothesis predicts a positive relationship between exercise and mood. The hypothesis suggests that engaging in regular exercise will lead to improved mood compared to individuals who lead a sedentary lifestyle.

To test this hypothesis, a researcher could design a study where they recruit two groups of participants one group that engages in regular exercise and another group that leads a sedentary lifestyle. The researcher would then assess and compare the mood levels of both groups using validated measures such as questionnaires or psychological assessments.

If the data analysis reveals that the exercise group has significantly higher mood scores compared to the sedentary group, it would support the research hypothesis. On the other hand, if there is no significant difference or if the sedentary group has higher mood scores, it would suggest that the hypothesis is not supported. By formulating a research hypothesis, researchers can structure their study, collect relevant data, and analyze the results to draw conclusions regarding the relationship between exercise and mood.

**Q.4 Elaborate different type of inferential statistcs and explain their approperaite use/ What is nature of Qualitative Research Design? Explain different types of it.**

Inferential statistics is a branch of statistics that involves drawing conclusions and making inferences about a population based on sample data. There are several types of inferential statistics, each serving a specific purpose. Let’s explore some of the common types and their appropriate uses:

**Confidence Intervals:**Confidence intervals provide a range of values within which the true population parameter is likely to fall. They quantify the uncertainty associated with the estimated parameter. Confidence intervals are useful for estimating population parameters, such as means or proportions, based on sample data.

**Example:** A researcher wants to estimate the average age of all college students in a particular region. By collecting a representative sample of students and calculating a confidence interval around the sample mean, the researcher can estimate the range in which the true population mean is likely to fall.

**Hypothesis Testing:**Hypothesis testing involves making a decision about a population parameter based on sample data. It allows researchers to assess whether the observed sample results provide enough evidence to support or reject a specific claim about the population.

**Example:** A company claims that a new advertising campaign significantly increases sales. A researcher collects sales data before and after the campaign and performs a hypothesis test to determine if there is a significant difference in sales between the two periods.

**Analysis of Variance (ANOVA):**ANOVA is used to compare means between three or more groups. It determines if there are statistically significant differences in means and identifies which groups differ from each other. ANOVA is useful when comparing multiple treatments or studying the impact of several independent variables simultaneously.

**Example:** A researcher wants to compare the effectiveness of three different teaching methods on student test scores. ANOVA can be used to determine if there are significant differences in mean test scores among the teaching methods.

**Regression Analysis:**Regression analysis is used to model the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. It helps understand how changes in the independent variables affect the dependent variable and allows for prediction and inference.

**Example:** A researcher wants to examine the relationship between income (dependent variable) and education level (independent variable). Regression analysis can help determine the strength and direction of the relationship and provide insights into how income might be influenced by education level.

**Chi-Square Test:**Chi-square tests are used to assess the association between categorical variables. They determine if the observed distribution of categorical data significantly deviates from the expected distribution and are useful for studying relationships or dependencies between variables.

**Example:** A researcher wants to investigate whether there is an association between gender (male or female) and preferred smartphone brand (Apple, Samsung, or others). A chi-square test can be used to determine if there is a significant relationship between these variables.

These are just a few examples of inferential statistical techniques. The appropriate use of each technique depends on the research question, the types of variables involved, and the nature of the data. It is important to select the appropriate inferential statistical method to ensure accurate and meaningful conclusions are drawn from the data.

**What is nature of Qualitative Research Design? Explain different types of it.**

The nature of qualitative research design is rooted in exploring and understanding complex phenomena in depth. Qualitative research focuses on subjective experiences, meanings, interpretations, and context, aiming to gain a comprehensive understanding of the research topic. It involves collecting and analyzing non-numerical data, such as interviews, observations, documents, and audiovisual materials. Qualitative research design is characterized by flexibility, iterative data collection and analysis, and the use of interpretive approaches to generate rich and nuanced insights.

There are various types **of qualitative research designs,** each suited to different research objectives and contexts. Here are a few commonly used types:

**Phenomenological Research:**Phenomenological research seeks to explore and describe the lived experiences of individuals related to a particular phenomenon. It aims to understand the essence and meaning of those experiences. Researchers conduct in-depth interviews or engage in participant observation to gather data and analyze it thematically, identifying common themes and patterns.**Ethnographic Research:**Ethnographic research involves immersing the researcher in the natural settings of the participants to understand their culture, behaviors, and social interactions. It often involves extended periods of observation, interviews, and document analysis. Researchers strive to understand the social and cultural context that shapes individuals’ experiences and behaviors.**Grounded Theory**: Grounded theory aims to develop theories or explanations that are grounded in empirical data. Researchers collect and analyze data simultaneously to generate concepts, categories, and theories. The emphasis is on constant comparison and theoretical sampling to refine emerging theories until reaching theoretical saturation.**Case Study Research:**Case study research involves an in-depth examination of a single case or a small number of cases. It can focus on individuals, groups, organizations, or communities. Researchers collect multiple sources of data, such as interviews, observations, and documents, to provide a holistic understanding of the case(s). Case study research helps uncover unique insights and generate rich, context-specific knowledge.**Narrative Research**: Narrative research explores individuals’ stories and personal accounts to understand their experiences, identities, and meanings. Researchers collect narratives through interviews, diaries, or written documents and analyze them thematically or structurally. Narrative research seeks to uncover how individuals construct and convey their experiences through storytelling.

It’s important to note that these types of qualitative research designs are not mutually exclusive, and researchers often combine different approaches based on their research questions and objectives. The choice of qualitative research design depends on the nature of the research topic, the depth of understanding sought, and the available resources for data collection and analysis.

**Q.5 What research methods are used in electronic media? Elaborate./ Highlight different types of research methods used in electronic media. **

Research methods in electronic media are diverse and encompass various approaches to study and analyze phenomena related to electronic media platforms, technologies, and content. Here are some commonly used research methods in electronic media:

**Content Analysis:**Content analysis involves systematic and objective analysis of the content of electronic media, such as television programs, websites, social media posts, or online news articles. Researchers identify and code specific variables of interest, such as themes, messages, or visual elements, to quantify and analyze patterns and trends in the media content. Content analysis can provide insights into media representations, audience effects, or media framing.**Surveys and Questionnaires:**Surveys and questionnaires are widely used to collect data from electronic media users. Researchers design and administer questionnaires to gather information about media usage patterns, attitudes, preferences, or demographic characteristics. Surveys can be conducted online, via email, or through web-based platforms to reach a large and diverse sample of media consumers. This method allows researchers to examine media consumption habits, audience opinions, or the impact of media on attitudes and behaviors.**Interviews**: Interviews are utilized to gather qualitative data from individuals involved in or affected by electronic media. Researchers conduct structured or semi-structured interviews with media professionals, content creators, or audience members to explore their perspectives, experiences, or opinions. Interviews provide in-depth insights into motivations, decision-making processes, or the reception and interpretation of media messages.**Observational Research:**Observational research involves direct observation of electronic media practices or behaviors in natural settings. Researchers may observe user interactions with digital platforms, social media conversations, or media consumption behaviors. Observational research helps understand real-time media use patterns, user engagement, or social dynamics in online communities.**Experimental Studies:**Experimental studies are conducted to investigate cause-and-effect relationships in electronic media research. Researchers manipulate independent variables, such as exposure to specific media content or advertising, and measure their impact on dependent variables, such as attitudes, emotions, or behaviors. Experimental designs allow researchers to establish causal relationships and control extraneous factors that may influence media effects.**Big Data Analysis:**With the increasing availability of large-scale datasets generated by electronic media platforms, researchers employ advanced data analysis techniques to extract meaningful insights. Big data analysis involves mining and analyzing massive volumes of user-generated data, social media posts, clickstream data, or online transactions. It allows researchers to explore patterns, trends, and correlations, uncover audience preferences, or predict user behavior.

These research methods, either used individually or in combination, provide researchers with tools to investigate a wide range of topics related to electronic media, including media effects, audience behavior, content analysis, media production, or technological advancements. The choice of research methods depends on the research questions, available resources, and the specific characteristics of the electronic media being studied.

**Q.6 What are cognitive, Affective and Conative Dimensions of Copy Testing? **

When it comes to copy testing, the cognitive, affective, and conative dimensions refer to different aspects of how people process and respond to advertising copy. Here’s a brief explanation of each dimension:

**Cognitive Dimension:**This dimension focuses on the cognitive or thinking processes triggered by the advertising copy. It aims to measure how well the copy captures attention, communicates information, and engages the audience intellectually. Cognitive dimensions of copy testing often include measures of recall, recognition, comprehension, and message comprehension. By assessing the cognitive dimension, advertisers can determine if the copy effectively conveys the intended message and if it is memorable enough to be recalled by the target audience.**Affective Dimension:**The affective dimension pertains to the emotional or affective responses evoked by the advertising copy. It aims to measure how the copy impacts the audience’s feelings, attitudes, and emotions. Advertisers often assess the affective dimension through measures such as likability, emotional response, brand association, and attitude change. Understanding the affective dimension helps advertisers determine if the copy successfully elicits the desired emotional response and if it creates a favorable attitude toward the brand or product.**Conative Dimension:**The conative dimension focuses on the behavioral or action-oriented responses generated by the advertising copy. It aims to measure the impact of the copy on the audience’s intentions, preferences, and actual behaviors. Measures related to the conative dimension may include purchase intent, likelihood to recommend, preference for the brand, and desired actions such as visiting a website or making a purchase. Assessing the conative dimension helps advertisers understand if the copy effectively motivates the audience to take the desired action and if it influences their behavior positively.

Overall, by evaluating all three dimensions of copy testing cognitive, affective, and conative advertisers can gain insights into how well their advertising copy captures attention, engages emotions, and drives desired behaviors. This information allows them to refine their messaging and optimize the effectiveness of their advertising campaigns.

are some relevant examples of how the cognitive, affective, and conative dimensions can be applied to media:

**Cognitive Dimension:****Recall and Recognition: Testing**how well viewers remember and recognize a specific brand or message after exposure to an advertisement.

- Comprehension: Assessing the audience’s understanding of complex concepts or information presented in media content, such as educational videos or infographics.

**Message Comprehension:**Evaluating the effectiveness of conveying a particular message or call-to-action in an advertisement.

- Affective Dimension:
**Emotional Response:**Measuring the emotional impact of media content through surveys, facial expression analysis, or physiological measurements to gauge the effectiveness of evoking desired emotions.

**Likability:**Assessing the audience’s overall enjoyment, appeal, or favorability towards media content, such as TV shows, movies, or advertisements.

**Brand Association:**Examining how media representations of a brand influence consumers’ emotional connections and associations with the brand.

- Conative Dimension:
**Purchase Intent:**Evaluating the influence of media advertisements on consumers’ intention to purchase a product or service.

**Call-to-Action**: Assessing the effectiveness of specific actions requested in media content, such as subscribing to a YouTube channel, visiting a website, or engaging with social media posts.

**Behavioral Change:**Measuring the impact of media campaigns on actual behaviors, such as encouraging viewers to adopt healthier habits, recycle, or donate to a cause.

These dimensions are often used in media research and advertising to understand how media content affects viewers’ cognitive processes, emotional responses, and behavioral intentions. By analyzing and optimizing these dimensions, advertisers and content creators can enhance the effectiveness of their media strategies and improve audience engagement.

**Q.7 Explain different types of Public Relations Research./ Campaign.**

Public relations research encompasses various methods and approaches to gather information and insights that inform public relations strategies, campaigns, and decision-making. Here are some different types of public relations research:

**Media Analysis:**Media analysis involves monitoring and analyzing media coverage to understand how an organization or brand is portrayed in the media. It helps identify trends, sentiment, and key messages associated with the organization. Media analysis can involve tracking mentions, evaluating tone and sentiment, and examining media reach and frequency.**Audience Research:**Audience research focuses on understanding the characteristics, preferences, attitudes, and behaviors of target audiences. This research can include demographic analysis, psychographic profiling, and surveys or interviews to gain insights into audience perceptions, needs, and interests. Audience research helps inform message development and communication strategies to effectively engage target audiences.**Reputation Management Research:**Reputation management research involves assessing and monitoring an organization’s reputation among key stakeholders and the general public. It helps identify the strengths and weaknesses of the organization’s reputation and provides insights into how to manage and improve reputation through strategic communication efforts.**Message Testing and Evaluation:**Message testing and evaluation research aims to assess the effectiveness of specific messages, slogans, or communication materials. It involves gathering feedback from target audiences through focus groups, surveys, or experiments to gauge their comprehension, acceptance, and persuasive impact. This research helps refine messaging strategies and optimize communication materials.**Crisis Communication Research:**Crisis communication research focuses on preparing for and responding to crises effectively. It involves scenario planning, risk assessment, and understanding stakeholder perceptions and expectations during crises. This research helps develop crisis communication plans, test messaging strategies, and evaluate the effectiveness of crisis response efforts.**Social Media Analysis:**With the growth of social media, public relations professionals often conduct research to analyze social media conversations, trends, and sentiment related to their organization or brand. Social media analysis provides insights into public opinion, identifies influencers, and helps monitor and manage online reputation.**Evaluation and Measurement:**Public relations research also involves evaluating the effectiveness and impact of public relations activities and campaigns. This includes measuring key performance indicators (KPIs), such as media impressions, website traffic, social media engagement, and brand perception. Evaluation research helps determine the return on investment (ROI) of public relations efforts and informs future strategies.

It’s important to note that these types of research can often overlap, and multiple approaches may be combined to gather comprehensive insights. Public relations research helps practitioners make informed decisions, tailor communication strategies, and measure the impact of their efforts in order to build and maintain effective relationships with key stakeholders.

**Q.8 How can we measure antisocial and pro-social effects of media? Discuss.**

Measuring the antisocial and pro-social effects of media is a complex task that requires careful consideration and the use of multiple research methodologies. Various methods can be employed to gauge the impact of media on individuals and society, including experimental studies, surveys, content analysis, and longitudinal research. Here, an overview of some approaches and offer examples to illustrate their application.

**Experimental Studies:**Controlled experiments allow researchers to manipulate media exposure and observe the subsequent effects on individuals. For instance, researchers might divide participants into groups, with one group exposed to antisocial media content and another to pro-social content. Afterward, they can measure changes in behavior, attitudes, or emotions to assess the impact of the media content.

**Example:** A study exposes one group of participants to violent video games and another group to nonviolent video games. Researchers then observe changes in aggression levels through behavioral assessments and questionnaires.

**Surveys and Questionnaires**: Surveys are widely used to gather self-reported data on media consumption, attitudes, and behavior. By examining individuals’ perceptions and beliefs, researchers can gain insights into the potential effects of media exposure.

**Example**: A survey asks respondents about their frequency of watching reality TV shows and their opinions on whether such programs promote negative behaviors like gossiping or encourage positive values like empathy and cooperation.

**Content Analysis:**Content analysis involves systematically examining the media content itself to identify and quantify the presence of pro-social or antisocial elements. It can provide insights into the prevalence and nature of specific messages conveyed through media.

**Example:** Researchers analyze a sample of popular music lyrics to determine the frequency of references to violence, aggression, and empathy. This analysis helps assess the prevalence of antisocial or pro-social themes in the music.

**Longitudinal Research:**Longitudinal studies track individuals or communities over an extended period to investigate the long-term effects of media exposure. By assessing participants’ media consumption habits and monitoring changes in behavior or attitudes over time, researchers can establish potential causal relationships.

**Example:** Researchers follow a group of children from early childhood to adolescence, recording their exposure to violent media and tracking the development of aggressive behavior and social skills.

It is important to note that measuring the effects of media is a complex endeavor. The impact of media is often multifaceted and influenced by various factors, including individual characteristics, social context, and other environmental influences. Consequently, no single method can provide a definitive measure of the effects, and combining different research approaches can yield more comprehensive insights.

Additionally, it is crucial to consider that media effects are not uniformly negative or positive. Media can have both antisocial and pro-social influences, and their effects can differ across individuals and situations. Therefore, a nuanced understanding of media’s impact requires careful analysis and interpretation of research findings while considering the broader social and cultural context.

**Q.9 Discuss the role of computers in research process. What important functions can be performed on SPSS? Discuss.**

Computers play a vital role in the research process, enabling researchers to conduct studies more efficiently, analyze data effectively, and communicate their findings. The role of computers in research and explore the important functions that can be performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).

**Role of Computers in the Research Process:**

**Data Collection:**Computers facilitate data collection through various means, such as online surveys, electronic data capture systems, and automated data entry. They enable researchers to collect data from large samples, store it securely, and reduce manual errors in data entry.**Data Storage and Management:**Computers provide a centralized and organized platform for storing and managing research data. Through databases or spreadsheet applications, researchers can easily access, retrieve, and manipulate data for analysis purposes.**Data Analysis:**Computers have revolutionized data analysis by providing powerful software tools. These tools allow researchers to apply statistical techniques, generate meaningful insights, and draw conclusions from complex datasets.**Statistical Software:**Statistical software packages like SPSS offer a wide range of functions for data analysis. These programs provide researchers with a user-friendly interface to perform various statistical procedures, automate calculations, and generate reports or visualizations.

**Important Functions in SPSS:**

**Data Import and Data Cleaning:**SPSS allows researchers to import data from different file formats, including spreadsheets and databases. It provides tools to clean and preprocess data, including identifying and handling missing values, recoding variables, and transforming data.**Descriptive Statistics**: SPSS offers functions to calculate descriptive statistics, such as measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode) and dispersion (standard deviation, range). These functions provide a summary of the data and help researchers understand its basic characteristics.**Inferential Statistics:**SPSS supports a wide range of inferential statistical techniques, including t-tests, ANOVA, regression analysis, factor analysis, and chi-square tests. These functions allow researchers to analyze relationships, test hypotheses, and make statistical inferences from the data.**Data Visualization:**SPSS includes tools for creating graphical representations of data, such as histograms, bar charts, scatterplots, and boxplots. Visualizations help researchers explore patterns, identify outliers, and communicate findings effectively.**Reporting and Exporting Results:**SPSS allows researchers to generate customized reports, tables, and charts summarizing the analysis results. These reports can be exported to various formats, such as Word or Excel, for further editing or sharing with others.**Syntax and Automation:**SPSS provides a syntax language that allows researchers to write and save scripts for repetitive or complex analyses. This feature enables automation of data processing and analysis, improving efficiency and reproducibility.

It’s important to note that while SPSS is a widely used statistical software package, there are other alternatives available, such as R, Python with libraries like NumPy and pandas, and SAS. The choice of software depends on the specific research requirements, familiarity of the researcher with the tool, and the nature of the analysis to be conducted.

Overall, computers and statistical software like SPSS have significantly enhanced the research process, empowering researchers with powerful tools for data analysis, visualization, and reporting. These technological advancements have revolutionized research by increasing efficiency, accuracy, and the ability to extract meaningful insights from complex datasets.** **

**Q.10 Discuss the evaluation of research in agenda setting perspectives.**

The evaluation of research in agenda-setting perspectives involves assessing the quality and relevance of studies examining the agenda-setting theory and its applications. Agenda-setting theory suggests that the media plays a significant role in shaping public opinion by influencing the prominence and salience of issues in public discourse. When evaluating research in this area, several key factors should be considered:

**Methodology:**Evaluate the research methodology employed in the studies. Strong agenda-setting research often utilizes rigorous quantitative or qualitative methods, such as content analysis, surveys, experiments, or in-depth interviews. Assess whether the methodology is appropriate for the research question and whether the data collection and analysis methods are valid and reliable.**Sample and Generalizability:**Consider the characteristics of the sample used in the studies. Assess whether the sample is representative of the population or target audience under investigation. Additionally, examine whether the findings can be generalized beyond the specific context of the study and to different media environments or cultural settings.**Variables and Measures:**Examine the variables and measures used to assess agenda-setting effects. Look for clear operational definitions and reliable measurement tools. It is important to consider whether the variables capture the intended constructs related to agenda-setting, such as issue salience, public opinion, media coverage, or political agenda.**Causality and Directionality**: Determine whether the research establishes causality and directionality in the agenda-setting process. Agenda-setting studies should provide evidence of a relationship between media agenda and public agenda, demonstrating that media coverage influences public perceptions or priorities, rather than the other way around.**External Validity:**Assess the external validity of the research findings. Examine whether the results are consistent with other studies in the field and whether they align with real-world observations. Evaluating the consistency and generalizability of findings across different studies strengthens the overall credibility of agenda-setting research.**Theoretical Framework:**Consider the theoretical framework underlying the research. Agenda-setting studies should be grounded in established theories and provide a clear conceptual framework that guides the research design and interpretation of findings. Look for studies that contribute to the advancement of agenda-setting theory or provide new insights into its mechanisms.**Peer Review and Citations:**Evaluate whether the research has undergone rigorous peer review and has been published in reputable academic journals. Peer-reviewed studies undergo critical evaluation by experts in the field, ensuring their quality and reliability. Additionally, consider the number of citations a study has received, as it indicates the impact and recognition within the scholarly community.**Contextual Factors:**Take into account contextual factors when evaluating agenda-setting research. The media landscape, political climate, and cultural factors can influence the agenda-setting process. Assess whether the studies consider and address these contextual factors adequately.

By considering these factors, researchers and scholars can critically evaluate agenda-setting research, identify strengths and weaknesses, and gain a better understanding of the theory’s applications and limitations. It is important to analyze multiple studies and examine the cumulative evidence to form a comprehensive evaluation of research in agenda-setting perspectives.

**Q. 11 What methods are used to measure the effects of advertising on the society. **

Measuring the effects of advertising on society is a complex task, as it involves understanding the impact of advertising messages on individuals’ attitudes, behaviors, and societal outcomes. Various research methods are employed to examine these effects. Here are some commonly used methods:

**Surveys and Questionnaires:**Surveys and questionnaires are frequently used to gather self-reported data from individuals regarding their attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors influenced by advertising. Researchers can ask specific questions about advertising recall, brand preferences, purchase intentions, or perceptions of societal values to understand the impact of advertising messages.**Experimental Studies:**Experimental studies involve manipulating variables to assess causal relationships between advertising exposure and its effects. Researchers may expose participants to different advertisements or control groups to examine changes in attitudes, behaviors, or cognitive processes. These studies help establish a cause-and-effect relationship between advertising and its impact on society.**Content Analysis**: Content analysis involves systematically analyzing the content of advertisements to identify and quantify specific elements such as persuasive appeals, stereotypes, or representations of social values. Researchers can examine how different types of advertising content are associated with societal outcomes, such as body image concerns, gender roles, or materialistic attitudes.**Observational Studies:**Observational studies involve observing and recording real-life advertising exposures and their effects on individuals or society. Researchers may collect data on advertising placements, exposure levels, and subsequent consumer behaviors or societal responses. This method provides insights into the real-world impact of advertising.**Neuromarketing Techniques:**Neuromarketing employs neuroscientific methods, such as brain imaging (e.g., fMRI) or physiological measures (e.g., skin conductance), to examine individuals’ neurological and physiological responses to advertising stimuli. These techniques provide insights into subconscious and emotional reactions to advertising and help assess its impact on neural processes and consumer behavior.**Econometric Models:**Econometric models use statistical techniques to analyze large datasets and examine the relationship between advertising expenditures, sales, and market outcomes. Researchers can assess the long-term effects of advertising on market share, brand loyalty, or societal outcomes such as consumption patterns, economic well-being, or environmental impact.**Longitudinal Studies:**Longitudinal studies track individuals or communities over an extended period to assess the long-term effects of advertising exposure. Researchers can collect data on advertising exposure, attitudes, and behaviors at multiple time points, allowing for the analysis of changes over time and the identification of advertising effects on society.

It’s important to note that each method has its strengths and limitations, and combining multiple research approaches often provides a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of advertising on society. Additionally, it is crucial to consider the broader social, cultural, and economic contexts in which advertising operates, as these factors can significantly influence the impact of advertising on individuals and society.

**Q. 12: Explain Chi-square, T-test and ANOVA. **

**Chi-square with examples**

Chi-square (χ²) is a statistical test used to determine if there is a significant association or relationship between two categorical variables. It compares the observed frequencies in a contingency table to the frequencies that would be expected under the assumption of independence between the variables. The test helps researchers determine whether the observed differences are due to chance or if there is a systematic relationship between the variables.

Here’s an example to illustrate how the chi-square test works:

Suppose a researcher is interested in examining whether there is an association between gender and political party preference among a group of voters.

The null hypothesis for the chi-square test is that there is no association between gender and political party preference in the population. The alternative hypothesis is that there is an association.

To conduct the chi-square test, the first step is to calculate the expected frequencies under the assumption of independence. The expected frequencies represent the frequencies that would be expected if the null hypothesis were true. These are calculated based on the row and column totals in the contingency table.

Next, the chi-square statistic is computed using the formula:

χ² = Σ ((O – E)² / E)

where O is the observed frequency and E is the expected frequency for each cell in the contingency table. The observed and expected frequencies are subtracted, squared, divided by the expected frequency, and summed across all cells in the table.

**T-test with examples**

A t-test is a statistical test used to determine if there is a significant difference between the means of two groups. It compares the sample means and considers the variability within the groups to assess whether the observed difference is likely due to chance or if it represents a true difference in the population. The t-test is commonly used when working with continuous numerical data and comparing two independent groups or paired observations.

Here’s an example to illustrate how a t-test works:

Suppose a researcher is interested in comparing the average test scores of two different tutoring programs, Program A and Program B, to determine if there is a significant difference in their effectiveness. The researcher selects a random sample of 30 students who participated in Program A and another independent random sample of 35 students who participated in Program B. The test scores of the students are as follows:

Program A: 80, 85, 90, 75, 82, … (30 scores in total) Program B: 78, 80, 75, 82, 85, … (35 scores in total)

To conduct a t-test, the first step is to define the null hypothesis (H₀) and the alternative hypothesis (H₁). In this case, the null hypothesis is that there is no difference in the mean test scores between Program A and Program B in the population, while the alternative hypothesis is that there is a significant difference.

Next, the researcher calculates the sample means and sample standard deviations for each group. Let’s assume the sample means are as follows:

Mean of Program A: 82.5 Mean of Program B: 79.2

The researcher also calculates the sample standard deviations, which measure the variability within each group.

Standard deviation of Program A: 5.0 Standard deviation of Program B: 4.8

Once the means and standard deviations are obtained, the t-test statistic is calculated using the formula:

t = (mean of Group A – mean of Group B) / (pooled standard deviation / sqrt(n₁ + n₂))

where n₁ and n₂ are the sample sizes of Group A and Group B, respectively. The pooled standard deviation takes into account the variability within each group.

In example, let’s assume the t-test statistic is calculated to be 2.34.

The final step is to determine the p-value associated with the t-test statistic. The p-value represents the probability of observing the data or more extreme results if the null hypothesis were true. It is compared to a predetermined significance level (e.g., 0.05) to determine if the observed difference is statistically significant.

Researchers can consult t-distribution tables or use statistical software to find the p-value. In our example, let’s assume the p-value is 0.023. If the p-value is less than the chosen significance level, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is a significant difference in the mean test scores between Program A and Program B.

In summary, the t-test allows researchers to assess the difference between two groups by comparing their sample means while considering the variability within each group. By examining the resulting t-test statistic and associated p-value, researchers can determine if the observed difference is statistically significant and provides evidence of a true difference in the population.

**Examples**

ANOVA, short for Analysis of Variance, is a statistical test used to determine if there are significant differences between the means of three or more groups. ANOVA assesses the variation between groups and within groups to determine if the observed differences in means are likely due to chance or if they represent true differences in the population. ANOVA is commonly used when working with continuous numerical data and comparing multiple independent groups.

Here’s an example to illustrate how ANOVA works:

Suppose a researcher wants to compare the effectiveness of three different teaching methods (Method A, Method B, and Method C) on students’ test scores. The researcher randomly assigns 25 students to each teaching method, and after completing the teaching sessions, each student takes a test. The test scores for each method are as follows:

Method A: 80, 85, 90, 75, 82, … (25 scores in total) Method B: 78, 80, 75, 82, 85, … (25 scores in total) Method C: 75, 77, 80, 73, 79, … (25 scores in total)

To conduct an ANOVA, the first step is to define the null hypothesis (H₀) and the alternative hypothesis (H₁). In this case, the null hypothesis is that there is no difference in the mean test scores between the teaching methods in the population, while the alternative hypothesis is that there is a significant difference.

Next, the researcher calculates the sample means and sample variances for each group. Let’s assume the sample means are as follows:

Mean of Method A: 82.5 Mean of Method B: 79.2 Mean of Method C: 76.8

The researcher also calculates the sample variances, which measure the variability within each group.

Variance of Method A: 25.5 Variance of Method B: 23.8 Variance of Method C: 28.1

Once the means and variances are obtained, the ANOVA test statistic is calculated using the formula:

F = (between-group variability / (k – 1)) / (within-group variability / (n – k))

where k is the number of groups (teaching methods) and n is the total number of observations (students). The between-group variability represents the variation between the group means, while the within-group variability represents the variation within each group.

In our example, let’s assume the ANOVA test statistic is calculated to be 3.21.

The final step is to determine the p-value associated with the ANOVA test statistic. The p-value represents the probability of observing the data or more extreme results if the null hypothesis were true. It is compared to a predetermined significance level (e.g., 0.05) to determine if the observed differences are statistically significant.

Researchers can consult F-distribution tables or use statistical software to find the p-value. In our example, let’s assume the p-value is 0.038. If the p-value is less than the chosen significance level, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is a significant difference in the mean test scores between the teaching methods.

In summary, ANOVA allows researchers to assess differences among multiple groups by comparing their means while considering the variability within and between groups. By examining the resulting ANOVA test statistic and associated p-value, researchers can determine if the observed differences are statistically significant and provide evidence of true differences in the population.

**Q.13: Discuss different statistical procedures to analyze mean difference.**

When analyzing mean differences between groups or conditions, there are several statistical procedures that can be employed, depending on the specific characteristics of the data and the research design. Here are some commonly used statistical procedures for analyzing mean differences:

**Independent Samples t-test:**The independent samples t-test is used to compare the means of two independent groups. It assumes that the data are normally distributed and that the variances of the groups are approximately equal. This test is appropriate when the groups are unrelated or when there is no overlap of participants between the groups.**Paired Samples t-test:**The paired samples t-test, also known as a dependent samples t-test, is used to compare the means of two related groups or conditions. It is appropriate when the same participants are measured under two different conditions or at two different time points. This test examines whether the mean difference between the pairs is significantly different from zero.**One-Way ANOVA:**The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used when comparing the means of three or more independent groups. It assesses whether there are significant differences between the group means while considering the variability within and between groups. The one-way ANOVA assumes that the data are normally distributed and that the variances are approximately equal across the groups.**Repeated Measures ANOVA:**The repeated measures ANOVA is used to analyze mean differences when the same participants are measured under multiple conditions or at multiple time points. It examines within-subject effects by comparing means across different levels of the repeated measure factor. This test is appropriate when the assumption of sphericity (i.e., the variances of the differences between conditions are equal) is met or when the data can be adjusted using correction techniques.**MANOVA:**Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) is an extension of ANOVA that allows for the analysis of multiple dependent variables simultaneously. It is used when there are two or more independent groups, and researchers are interested in examining the mean differences across multiple outcome variables. MANOVA provides an overall test for group differences and can also identify specific variables that contribute significantly to the overall effect.**Nonparametric Tests**: Nonparametric tests, such as the Wilcoxon signed-rank test or the Mann-Whitney U test, can be used when the assumptions of normality or equal variances are violated, or when the data are ordinal rather than continuous. These tests do not rely on assumptions about the underlying distribution and are based on rank comparisons.

It is important to select the appropriate statistical procedure based on the research design, the nature of the data, and the assumptions underlying each test. Additionally, conducting exploratory data analysis and checking the assumptions of the selected statistical procedure is essential to ensure the validity of the results.

Suppose a researcher is interested in comparing the effectiveness of three different teaching methods (Method A, Method B, and Method C) on students’ test scores. The researcher randomly assigns 30 students to each teaching method, and after completing the teaching sessions, each student takes a test. The test scores for each method are as follows:

Method A: 80, 85, 90, 75, 82, … (30 scores in total) Method B: 78, 80, 75, 82, 85, … (30 scores in total) Method C: 75, 77, 80, 73, 79, … (30 scores in total)

Let’s analyze the mean differences using different statistical procedures:

**Independent Samples t-test:**The independent samples t-test can be used to compare the mean test scores between any two teaching methods. For example, we can perform an independent samples t-test to compare the mean test scores between Method A and Method B. This would provide information on whether there is a significant difference in test scores between these two methods.**One-Way ANOVA**: The one-way ANOVA can be used to compare the mean test scores across all three teaching methods (Method A, Method B, and Method C). This test would provide an overall assessment of whether there are significant differences in the mean test scores among the three methods.

These are just a few examples of statistical procedures that can be used to analyze mean differences. The specific procedure chosen would depend on the research questions, the design of the study, and the nature of the data.